Atropinae Sulphas, B.P. Atropine Sulphate.
C34H48N2O10S = 676.474.
Atropine sulphate, (C17H23NO3)2H2SO4, is the salt of a base obtained from Atropa Belladonna, Linn., and other Solanaceous plants. It is also official in the U.S.P. It occurs in colourless crystals or as a white, micro-crystalline powder. Melting-point, 185° to 186°.
Soluble in water (2 in 1), alcohol (1 in 4); insoluble in ether or chloroform.
Action and Uses.—Atropine sulphate is employed principally in the preparation of solutions for local application to the eye. The action of 1 atropine is exerted upon the terminations of the nerves in the involuntary muscles of the eye. These are paralysed by its local action, dilatation of the pupil and disturbance of accommodation resulting. Atropine is used in ophthalmic practice to paralyse the movements of the iris and ciliary muscle; to break down adhesions and to prevent the formation of inflammatory scars in the iris. It increases intra-ocular tension, and its use is therefore contraindicated in glaucoma. For its action in diminishing gland secretions it is employed in the night-sweats of phthisis. Atropine acts as a physiological antidote to morphine, and is added to hypodermic injections of morphine to reduce the tendency to depression and to prevent constipation. The sulphate is the salt of atropine most generally employed in making solutions for application to the eyes, for hypodermic injections, and for taking internally in mixtures. A solution of atropine sulphate is administered by hypodermic injection in spasmodic asthma, to relieve pain in sciatica and in ovarian and uterine neuralgia. The B.P. solution contains a small proportion of salicylic acid, added for preservative purposes. Lamellae Atropinae are prepared for ophthalmic use. As a substitute for glycerin of belladonna, Glycerinum Atropinae will be found more efficient and more cleanly. In addition to homatropine, other artificial substitutes for atropine have been introduced. Eumydrine is methyl-atropine nitrate. Solutions (1 to 2 per cent.) are used to dilate the pupil. Its action is slow and persists for twelve hours. Euphthalmin is allied to betacaine. 5 to 10 per cent. solutions are employed to produce mydriasis, which commences in about fifteen minutes and is at its maximum after about one hour, disappearing in six to eight hours. Atropine methyl bromide (Mydriasine) is used in 1/2 to 2 per cent. solutions for dilating the pupil. It has also been given internally in conditions for which atropine is employed. Dose, 1 to 2 milligrams (1/64 to 1/32 grain). In diabetes, doses increasing gradually from 1 milligram (1/64 grain) to 30 milligrams (1/2 grain) have been employed with apparent success in suppressing the elimination of sugar. It has also been used in bronchitis and emphysema. Atropine salts areincompatible with alkalies, tannic acid, and salts of mercury. In cases of poisoning by atropine or belladonna, 12 decigrams (20 grains) of tannic acid should be given in 90 to 120 mils (3 or 4 ounces) of water, and then the stomach evacuated by means of a syphon tube or an emetic. Brandy and ammonia may be given as stimulants, and artificial respiration may be necessary.
Dose.—1/3 to 2/3 milligram (1/200 to 1/100 grain).
- Collyrium Atropinae, B.P.C.—ATROPINE EYE LOTION. 1 in 4000.
- Collyrium Atropinae et Hydrargyri Perchloridi, B.P.C.—ATROPINE AND MERCURIC CHLORIDE EYE LOTION.
- Atropine eye lotion and mercuric chloride eye lotion equal parts.
- Glycerinum Atropinae, B.P.C.—GLYCERIN OF ATROPINE. 1 in 400
- More constant in strength than Glycerinum Belladonnae, for which it is a cleanly substitute, since it does not stain the skin or clothes of the patient.
- Guttae Atropinae, B.P.C.—ATROPINE EYE DROPS. 1 per cent.
- These drops are sometimes ordered one-half or one quarter this strength.
- Guttae Atropinae, et Cocainae, B.P.C.—ATROPINE AND COCAINE EYE DROPS.
- Atropine sulphate, 1 per cent.; cocaine hydrochloride, 2 per cent.
- Injectio Atropinae Hypodermica, B.P.C.—HYPODERMIC INJECTION OF ATROPINE.
- Five decimils (0.5 milliliters) contain 0.6 milligram of atropine sulphate (1/100 grain in 8 minims). Dose.—1 to 5 decimils (0.1 to 0.5 milliliters) (2 to 8 Minims).
- Lamellae Atropinae, B.P.—ATROPINE DISCS. 1/5000 grain.
- These discs are used to dilate the pupil, for which purpose stronger discs, containing 1/2000 or 1/1000 grain of atropine sulphate in each, are also employed. Much stronger discs, containing 1/500 or 1/250 grain of atropine sulphate in each, are used to paralyse the accommodation. They should be prepared and kept in an aseptic atmosphere.
- Linimentum Atropinae, B.P.C.—LINIMENT OF ATROPINE. 0.4 per cent.
- Does not stain the skin or clothes of the patient, and has nearly the same alkaloidal strength as Linimentum Belladonnae, for which it is a cleanly substitute.
- Linimentum Atropinae cum Chloroformo, B.P.C.—LINIMENT OF ATROPINE WITH CHLOROFORM.
- Chloroform, 1; liniment of atropine, 7. Does not stain the skin or clothes of the patient, and has nearly the same alkaloidal strength as Linimentum Belladonnae et Chloroformi, for which it is a cleanly substitute.
- Liquor Atropinae Sulphatis, B.P.—SOLUTION OF ATROPINE SULPHATE.
- Atropine sulphate, 1; salicylic acid, 0.12; distilled water, sufficient to produce 100. The product is a clear, colourless liquid, and is intended principally for ophthalmic use, but for many purposes a solution half this strength is preferred. The solution has all the actions of atropine, and may be used to stop sweating, to diminish bronchial secretion, in ptyalism, to cut off excessive vagal inhibition, to relieve muscular spasm in asthma, lead and other colics, and whooping cough; also to dilate the pupil, and to stimulate the motor area and respiratory centre in the brain. The salicylic acid in this preparation sometimes irritates the eye. Dose.—3 to 6 centimils (0.03 to 0.06 milliliters) (1/2 to 1 minim).
- Pilulae Atropinae et Morphinae, B.P.C.—ATROPINE AND MORPHINE PILLS.
- Each pill contains atropine sulphate, 1/100 grain; morphine hydrochloride, 4 grain; massed with milk sugar and syrup of glucose. Dose.—1 pill.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.