Scopola is the dried rhizome of Scopolia carniolica, Jacq. (N.O. Solanaceae), a common plant in Austro-Hungary, Bavaria, and South-Western Russia. The drug is official in the U.S.P., when it should contain not less than 0.5 per cent. of mydriatic alkaloids. It occurs in entire or longitudinally-split pieces from 2.5 to 7.5 centimetres long, and 8 to 16 millimetres broad, yellowish-brown to dark brownish-grey externally, finely and irregularly wrinkled longitudinally, obscurely annulate, more or less warty and with closely set cup-shaped stem-scars on the upper surface; fracture short and sharp, exhibiting a yellowish-white bark, brown corky layer, indistinctly radiate pith, and horny central pith. The drug is almost odourless, with a taste which is sweetish at first, but afterwards bitterish and acrid.
Constituents.—The chief constituent of scopola is the alkaloid hyoscine (scopolamine or scopoleine), but it also contains hyoscyamine and probably atropine, the total alkaloid being about 0.6 to 0.7 per cent.
Action and Uses.—Scopola resembles belladonna in its properties, and may be employed for similar purposes, but the drug itself is rarely used in medicine. The rhizome is an important source of hyoscine (scopolamine). The drug may be administered in the form of extract and fluidextract.
Dose.—6 to 12 centigrams (1 to 2 grains).
- Extractum Scopolae, U.S.P.—EXTRACT OF SCOPOLA.
- Prepared by evaporating the fluidextract, on a water-bath, at a temperature not exceeding 50°, to a pilular consistence. It should contain 2 per cent, of mydriatic alkaloids, powdered milk sugar being added if necessary to reduce the extract to this standard. Average dose.—10 milligrams (1/5 grain).
- Fluidextractum Scopolae, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF SCOPOLA.
- Scopola, in No. 40 powder, is exhausted by macero-percolation with alcohol (95 per cent.), mixed with one-fourth its volume of water, and the strength of the product adjusted so that the fluidextract contains 0.5 per cent. w/v of mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose.—5 centimils (0.05 milliliters) (1 minim).
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.