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Fluid Extracts of the New Pharmacopoeia, Part II, cont'd.

Preparations:

Continued from previous page.

EXTRACTUM GLYCYRRHIZAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Glycyrrhiza.—The fluid extract of liquorice root of the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, was prepared with a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water; finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluid ounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporating. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, with three per cent. of water of ammonia in the first one hundred parts of menstruum, and three per cent. more in the dilute percolate previous to evaporation. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended a menstruum composed of one part of alcohol, and three parts of water, with twenty per cent. of glycerin, and five per cent. of water of ammonia in the first one hundred parts. A sample thus prepared in December, 1879, now contains only the slight precipitate which formed soon after it was, made, and in all other respects it is in excellent condition. In regard to the officinal formula, the utility of adding a portion of the water of ammonia to the dilute percolate is not apparent, it would seem to be more advantageous to add all that is used to the menstruum, so that its solvent action may be exercised on the drug; neither does it appear necessary to use as strong a menstruum as diluted alcohol. A menstruum containing as little as twenty per cent. of alcohol, has been recommended by an operator of the greatest ability; as water alone will exhaust liquorice root, the chief use of alcohol in the fluid extract is as a preservative; regarding the use of glycerin in this preparation, it is possible that ten per cent. might be sufficient, although a sample made with that proportion precipitated considerably more than the sample containing twenty per cent.

EXTRACTUM GOSSYPII RADICIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Cotton Root.— For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluid ounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs alcohol, with thirty-five per cent. Of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of menstruum; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended alcohol also, but with only twenty per cent. of glycerin. A sample thus prepared in November, 1879, now shows only a moderate precipitate, about the one-eighth of an inch deep in a four ounce bottle, the sides of the bottle are coated with a uniform, exceedingly thin, brown transparent deposit, the fluid extract retains its deep red color, and is without any signs of gelatinization. Another sample prepared at the same time as the first, and differing only in containing forty per cent. of glycerin, now shows considerable deposit, about the one-fourth of an inch deep in a four ounce bottle, the coating on the sides of the bottle is less uniform, and of a bright red color, numerous masses of gelatinous substance, very small at the top, and increasing in size towards the bottom, are also attached to the sides of the bottle; about one-fourth of the lower portion of the fluid extract has gelatinized, it however mixes readily with the remaining portion, and the whole of it still retains its deep red color. From this it would appear that twenty per cent is a decidedly better proportion of glycerin than forty, or so near an approach to that amount as thirty-five; if the alcohol used was absolute, and the glycerin of the highest attainable specific gravity, then it is possible that forty, or even fifty, per cent, could be employed without injuriously affecting the preparation, but the nine per cent. of water in officinal alcohol, and the varying amount in the best commercial glycerin, are sufficient to cause the preparation to prove unstable, it having been conclusively shown that the failure of the former officinal process was due to the presence of water in the menstruum.

EXTRACTUM GRINDELIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Grindelia.—This is a newly introduced fluid extract, the Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol, and one part of water; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended alcohol, and a sample so prepared in December 1879, now contains only a very slight precipitate, is of a pure green color, and apparently has undergone no change whatever. Another sample prepared with the officinal menstruum, in November, 1882, is of a brownish-green color, has a slight deposit of a white substance like fine sand, the sides of the bottle are thinly coated with the same, and floating particles of it are distributed throughout the entire body of the fluid extract; a menstruum similar to the officinal, was recommended for grindelia by a California writer several years ago, and no doubt this weaker spirit was adopted by the Committee of Revision for some other reason than cheapness, but its superiority over alcohol is not apparent.

EXTRACTUM GUARANAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Guarana.—This is also a new preparation, the Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended two parts of alcohol and one part of water. A sample thus prepared in December, 1879, has only a very slight precipitate, and is in every other respect perfect; a spirit of the officinal strength appears to be quite unnecessary, although it may furnish an equally permanent preparation.

EXTRACTUM HAMAMELIDIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Hamamelis.—This is one of the eleven added to the list by the Committee of Revision; the menstruum directed is one part of alcohol, and two parts of water, which no doubt thoroughly extracts the witchhazel leaves.

EXTRACTUM HYDRASTIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Hydrastis.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed fourteen fluid-ounces of alcohol, and two fluidounces of glycerin, finishing the percolation with a mixture of two parts of alcohol, and one part of water The present Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same; a sample thus prepared in November, 1879, now contains a moderate precipitate, and a very thin coating of brownish color deposited on the sides of the bottle, in all other respects the sample is in good condition. Another sample prepared at the same time, with a menstruum of one part of alcohol, and one part of water, with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts, now contains only a very slight sediment, and no deposit on the sides of the bottle; this fluid extract, however, is not quite as transparent as the other sample. The addition often per cent. of glycerin to the first one hundred parts of the officinal menstruum, would probably prevent all precipitation.

EXTRACTUM HYOSCYAMI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Hyoscyamus.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of twelve fluidounces of alcohol, three fluid ounces of glycerin, and one fluidounce of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs three parts of alcohol, and one part of water, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum. A sample thus prepared in December, 1879, now contains only a very slight deposit, less than the one-eighth of an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle; this, with a few small specks of matter attached to the sides of the bottle, is the only change that the sample appears to have undergone. Another sample made at the same time as the first, with alcohol alone as the menstruum, now contains a very large deposit, being fully an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle, also considerable matter on the sides and a coating of waxy nature on the upper part of the bottle above the fluid extract.

The appearance of these samples indicates that the officinal menstruum is best for this preparation. These experiments were made with Allen's English leaves; if the ordinary commercial leaves had been used, the result might have been different.

EXTRACTUM IPECACUANHAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Ipecac.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, directed twenty-four fluidounces of stronger alcohol and twelve fluidounces of water finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding eight fluidounces of glycerin to the entire percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs the use of alcohol as the menstruum, and by means of a water bath distils off the alcohol from the entire percolate, which is then to be evaporated to seventy-five cubic centimeters, and when cool filtered, the precipitate on the filter is to be washed with water, until the water passes through tasteless, the filtrate and washings are to be reduced by evaporation to fifty cubic centimeters, and when cool, enough alcohol is to be added to make the fluid extract measure one hundred cubic centimeters. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water; a sample thus prepared in January, 1880, deposited soon after it was made, a moderate precipitate, which has not been increased since, and the sample now appears to be in very good condition.

The Committee of Revision must have been convinced before they adopted the present officinal formula, that the repeated and prolonged applications of heat therein directed, do not injuriously affect the active constituents of ipecac. While it cannot be positively asserted that such treatment does lessen the activity of the preparation, it certainly cannot be claimed to increase it; the obvious object of the special procedure directed in the preparation of this fluid extract, being to furnish a product that will form a permanently transparent preparation when mixed with syrup, and as it may be doubted that even this process will always accomplish that object, it would seem preferable to prepare the fluid extract in the ordinary way, and then make the syrup by a process which can always be depended upon, although it may involve a little more pharmaceutical labor in carrying it out.

When the fluid extract is made by the formula recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the eighty-five parts of reserved percolate will contain at least ninety-five per cent. of the soluble portion of the ipecac, and only the small amount contained in the dilute percolate is subjected to heat. This fluid extract when mixed with the proper quantity of water, and after standing a few hours filtered, and the sugar dissolved in the filtrate, either by moderate beat, by agitation in a bottle, or by cold percolation, will yield a syrup entirely free from suspicion of injury during the process of its preparation.

Such a method for this syrup, with the addition of twenty per cent. of glycerin, has been used for years by the writer and other pharmacists, with entire satisfaction; no fermentation, precipitation, or separation of flocculent matter occurring in the syrup so made, even when kept for years, and exposed in partly filled bottles, to the varying temperature of the store in all seasons.

Recently published experiments appear to indicate that the addition of a small quantity of water of ammonia, to a very dilute alcoholic menstruum, will also furnish a transparent and permanent syrup, but such addition will undoubtedly cause a chemical change in the constituents of the ipecac, and while this charge is probably not injurious to its medicinal value, it would seem preferable to employ an equally effective preservative, which would be entirely without chemical action.

EXTRACTUM IRIDIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Iris.—This fluid extract is one of the eleven added to the list by the Committee of Revision; the menstruum directed for its preparation is composed of three parts of alcohol, and one part of water, which will no doubt thoroughly exhaust the blue flag root, and supply a permanent and reliable preparation of an active indigenous drug.


The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 55, 1883, was edited by John M. Maisch.



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