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Fluid Extracts of the New Pharmacopoeia. Part III.

Preparations:

By ALONZO ROBBINS.

Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March 20.

Related entries: Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4

EXTRACTUM KRAMERIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Krameria.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of the menstruum, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same. A sample thus made in December, 1879, has kept tolerably well, has almost no precipitate, is quite thick but not gelatinized, is of a deep red color, and not quite transparent in thin layers; another sample made at the same time, but with only ten per cent. of glycerin, is also without precipitate, is comparatively thin, of a deep red color, and perfectly transparent in thin layers. It would therefore seem that the officinal formula would be improved by the use of ten per cent. of glycerin instead of twenty.

EXTRACTUM LACTUCAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Lactacarium.—This is one of the eleven fluid extracts added to the list by the Committee of Revision. The Pharmacopoeia directs a most, elaborate and complicated procedure, which, if carefully worked out, yields a fluid extract that will, when mixed with syrup, furnish that much-desired preparation, a permanently clear syrup of lactucarium; although there is considerable demand for this syrup, it seems a pity that so much pharmaceutical skill and labor should be required for the preparation of a drug, of which a recognized medical authority speaks of as being possibly desirable for persons with whom faith in a remedy supplies its want of intrinsic efficiency.

EXTRACTUM LEPTANDRAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Leptandra.—This is one of the newly introduced fluid extracts; the Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of diluted alcohol, with fifteen per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, two parts of alcohol, and one part of water; a sample thus made in November, 1879, contains now only a moderate precipitate, about the one-eighth of an inch deep in a four ounce bottle; the fluid extract appears to be in perfect condition. If glycerin is a necessary ingredient of the officinal menstruum, then that recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy is to be preferred, as the product keeps remarkably well without such addition.

EXTRACTUM LOBELIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Lobelia.—This is also a newly-introduced preparation; the Pharmacopoeia directs the use of diluted alcohol as the menstruum, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same; a sample thus made in January, 1880, now contains only a slight precipitate, the sides of the bottle are free of deposit, except that above the fluid extract there is a small portion of waxy matter, otherwise the preparation has kept very well.

EXTRACTUM LUPULINI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Lupulin.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed stronger alcohol, the present Pharmacopoeia directs alcohol, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum, and also that the powder be packed in the percolator without previously moistening it with a portion of the menstruum; this is a very good suggestion, as then the percolation proceeds evenly and without difficulty, while if the powder be first moistened, it is apt to form a tough mass, almost impossible to percolate. A sample of the fluid extract prepared in November, 1879, contains now only a very slight precipitate, and is in most excellent condition.

EXTRACTUM MATICO FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Matico.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of twelve fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and one fluidounce of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol, and one part of water, with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of the mixture; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum. A sample thus prepared in December, 1879, has now only the slight precipitate which formed soon after it was made, and is in every other respect in excellent condition; another sample prepared at the same time with alcohol, has also only a slight precipitate, but there is quite a large deposit of matter on the sides of the bottle; evidently the officinal menstruum is remarkably well suited for this preparation.

EXTRACTUM MEZEREI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Mezereum.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed stronger alcohol, the present Pharmacopoeia directs alcohol, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum; a sample thus prepared in December, 1879, has now only a slight precipitate and a very thin coating of matter on the sides of the bottle, otherwise the preparation has kept very well.

EXTRACTUM NUCIS VOMICAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica.—This is one of the eleven fluid extracts added to the list by the Committee of Revision; the Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of eight parts of alcohol and one part of water, which will no doubt thoroughly exhaust the drug; the chief utility of this preparation would seem to be its availability for the quick preparation of the abstract, solid extract and, perhaps, the tincture of nux vomica.

EXTRACTUM PAREIARAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Pareira.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of menstruum; and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same. A sample thus prepared in October, 1879, kept well for a considerable time, and now contains only a moderate precipitate, about the one-fourth of an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle, but there is also a thick deposit of a transparent brown substance on the sides of the bottle; another sample prepared at the same time, with a menstruum composed of one part of alcohol, and three parts of water, and twenty per cent. of glycerin, now contains a large deposit, over half an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle; there is also a deposit on the sides of the bottle, but not near so thick as that on the sides of the other bottle. The condition of these samples seems to indicate that a more alcoholic menstruum is required for the preservation of this preparation, and it is probable that one containing not less than three parts of alcohol to one of water, with the same quantity of glycerin as is now directed would accomplish the object.

EXTRACTUM PILOCARPI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Pilocarpus.—For this newly-introduced preparation the Pharmacopoeia directs the use of diluted alcohol as the menstruum; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended one part of alcohol and two parts of water; a sample thus prepared in December, 1879, now contains only a slight precipitate and a very thin coating on the sides of the bottle; the fluid extract is perfectly transparent and of a deep red color in thin layers; another sample recently made with the officinal menstruum has also a deposit about equal in amount to that of the first sample, but it is of a much darker color; this fluid extract is also darker than the older sample, but this may be owing to the larger proportion of brown leaves found in Jaborandi of late. While the officinal menstruum produces an excellent preparation, the weaker menstruum recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy is evidently just as good for the extraction of the drug and preservation of the product.

EXTRACTUM PODOPHYLLI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Podophyllum.—This is also a new officinal preparation. The Pharmacopoeia directs, a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended alcohol; a sample thus prepared in November, 1879, contains now only a very minute precipitate, and the fluid extract is of a bright red color, brilliantly transparent; a second sample, prepared at the same time, with the now officinal menstruum, contains a little larger, but still a very small precipitate, this fluid extract is very dark, but perfectly transparent, and of a deep red color in thin layers. It is evident that either of these menstruums will yield an excellent preparation, and although alcohol may be the more scientific, the preference seems to be due to the weaker officinal menstruum.

EXTRACTUM PRUNI VIRGINIANAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Wild Cherry.— For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of four fluidounces of glycerin, and eight fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with stronger alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs one hundred grammes of wild cherry in number twenty powder to be moistened with fifty grammes of a mixture of two parts of water and one part of glycerin, and then set aside for forty-eight hours; the damp powder is then to be packed in the percolator, saturated with diluted alcohol, and again macerated for forty-eight hours; then the percolation is allowed to proceed, adding diluted alcohol, until the wild cherry is exhausted; the first eighty cubic centimeters of the percolate are reserved, the next one hundred and twenty cubic centimeters are to be evaporated to a thin syrup, the alcohol is to be distilled from the remainder of the percolate, and the residue of this is also to be evaporated to a thin syrup; the two syrupy liquids are to be united and evaporated on a water-bath to a soft extract, which is to be dissolved in the reserved portion, and enough diluted alcohol added to make the fluid extract measure one hundred cubic centimeters.

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the following process: one hundred parts of wild cherry in number forty powder are to be moistened with fifty parts of water and set, aside for twenty-four hours; twenty parts of sugar are then to be mixed with the damp powder, and the whole packed in a percolator and saturated with a mixture of one part of alcohol and six parts of water, and allowed to macerate for forty-eight hours; then the percolation is allowed to proceed, adding the same mixture of alcohol and water, until the wild cherry is exhausted. The first eighty parts of the percolate are to be reserved, ten parts of glycerin are to be added to the remainder, which is then to be evaporated to a soft extract, this is to be dissolved in the reserved portion, and a sufficient quantity of the menstruum added to make one hundred parts. A sample thus prepared in October, 1879, deposited in about four months after it was made a very slight precipitate, less than the one-eighth of an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle; this precipitate has not been increased perceptibly up to the present time, the odor of hydrocyanic acid has also disappeared, in other respects the same is in good condition, dark red in color, and perfectly transparent in thin layers. This formula was recommended only after a great many experiments with various proportions of alcohol, water, and glycerin; it has stood the test of time as well as any formula for this preparation can be expected to do, a partially filled bottle, exposed on a shelf in the store, and frequently opened, had not entirely lost the hydrocyanic acid odor in ten months. This odor will probably not be retained by any method for a great length of time; any sample of this fluid extract possessing it in a marked degree more than a year after its preparation, might justly be suspected of having had an addition of the oil of bitter almonds. Recently two new samples were made, one by the officinal and the other by the Philadelphia College formula; at present they both possess the hydrocyanic acid odor and taste in a marked degree, but the officinal has a very large precipitate, fully three-fourths of an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle; this precipitate, however, is probably composed of inert substances chiefly; the other sample is perfectly clear and has formed no precipitate. The fluid extract made by either of these formulas yields clear solutions in all proportions with syrup, simple elixir, and sherry wine.

Of the two formulas, that of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy seems to be preferable for simplicity, economy, and permanence of product; the use of sugar in this fluid extract would not have been recommended had it not been considered to have a decidedly beneficial effect in preserving the preparation.

Cont'd on next page.


The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 55, 1883, was edited by John M. Maisch.



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