American Pharmaceutical Association.
The following papers were presented to the Association:
Other tomes: King's
Precipitates in Fluid Extracts, by Prof. J. U. Lloyd. This is a continuation of the researches reported in previous years. Strong solutions of seven chemical compounds were treated with strips of filtering paper to complete saturation; the remaining solution, in all instances, retained less of the chemical than it originally contained; but the liquid expressed from the paper, instead of being stronger than the original solution, was in all cases weaker. The solutions of citric acid and of ammonium carbazotate expressed from the paper were of about the same strength as the solutions left from the original ones after having been partly absorbed by the paper. Still weaker expressed solutions were obtained with berberine hydrochlorate, sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, quinine hydrochlorate and quinine bisulphate. The first portions of the expressed solution of the last named salt having formed crystals within a few minutes. Mr. Hallberg suggested that this might be due to the abstraction of sulphuric acid and the formation of the less soluble diquinine sulphate. Prof. Lloyd had found it necessary to add sulphuric acid in order to dissolve the crystallized salt in the liquid. Prof. Prescott spoke of the importance of these investigations for theoretical science, and as aiding the explanation of the true causes for the necessity of prolonged washing of precipitates and for other chemical operations.
Other tomes: King's
The Preparation of Galenical Liquids from Fluid Extracts, by Prof. O. A. Wall. The author sums up his arguments by stating that tinctures and wines may be legitimately made from fluid extracts, likewise most syrups when they can be made that way, while the solutions of fluid extracts in water which generally are superior, are yet frequently so different from infusions and decoctions in strength, and occasionally in mode of action, that they cannot indiscriminately be used one for the other without the expressed consent of the prescribing physician.
Other tomes: King's
Coloring Elixirs, by J. W. Caldwell, Detroit. This is advocated solely because it is required by the physician and the public. A red color from cochineal is suggested for the elixirs containing bromides, valerianates, alkaloids or chloral; a tincture made of cudbear is recommended for iodides, arsenites, salicylates and monobromated camphor; and tincture of annatto which gives an amber tint, is regarded as suitable for the various combinations of lithium, bismuth, pepsin and strychnine, while elixirs containing cinchona alkaloids are preferably colored with caramel.
Preservation of Mucilage of Acacia, by Thos. W. Watkins, Olyphant. Comparative experiments made with tolu balsam, oil of eucalyptus and oil of gaultheria show that the latter has the greatest preservative properties. The proportions used were oil of gaultheria, 15 minims; calcium phosphate sufficient, water eight ounces, acacia four ounces. Other articles, like syrup of acacia, simple syrup and lard may possibly be preserved by the addition of the same oil.
Infected Solutions, by Dr. R. G. Eccles, Brooklyn. The cryptogamous growth observed in many solutions after having been kept for some time is discussed in a lengthy paper. Regarding the effect of these plants upon health, it is contended that while they may not be the cause of disease, their irritating presence may aggravate the suffering. They may be removed by Pasteur's filter of unglazed porcelain, but not by other kinds of filters. The question as to whether these plants are algae or fungi has not been completely settled; their structure and final development are in favor of the former view. They do not appear to be ferments; but in some solutions putrefactive bacteria are developed. Diluted phosphoric acid, thus infected, after forty days, had not decreased in specific gravity or in neutralizing power. These plants evidently live upon the carbonic acid and ammonia, derived from. the air or dissolved in the liquid, and their filamentous sheaths are composed of cellulose. The plants are killed by a boiling temperature, and of the antiseptics tried, mercuric chloride was found to be the best, and about forty times stronger in its action than salicylic or benzoic acid, each of which acted as a preservative in dilutions of 1:2,000, or 2,500 or 3,000. The paper was accompanied by a number of microscopic drawings.
Jacaranda lancifoliata. Under this name the leaves of a plant from Columbia, South America have been experimented with by Drs. Murray Smith, Alfred Wright and Z. Mennell, and were found to be very useful in cases of gonorrhea, syphilis and in vesical affections attended with purulent urine ("Brit. Med. Jour."). The plant named, it appears to us, is identical with J. procera, Sprengel. A description of the leaves with analysis was published in this Journal 1882, pages 134 and 513. The leaflets are very variable in shape, and J. lanceolata, Velloso, we believe, is regarded merely as a variety of the species named.
It should be remembered that in Brazil the different species of Jacaranda and of other Bignoniaceae are known as caroba and distinguished by various affixes, while the common name jacarandá is there given to various Leguminosae; according to Peckolt, Drepanocarpus microphyllus, Wawra, is known as jacarandá-rosa and Machaerium firmum, F. Allem., as jacarandá-tau. J. M. M.
The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 57, 1885, was edited by John M. Maisch.