Syrupus (U. S. P.)—Syrup.
SYNONYMS: Syrupus simplex, Simple syrup, Syrupus albus, Syrupus sacchari.
Preparation.—"Take of sugar, in coarse powder, eight hundred and fifty grammes (850 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 13 ozs., 430 grs.]; distilled water, a sufficient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]. Dissolve the sugar, with the aid of heat, in four hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (450 Cc.) [15 fl℥, 104♏] of distilled water, raise the temperature to the boiling point, strain the liquid, and pass enough distilled water through the strainer to make the product, when cold, measure one thousand cubic centimeters (1-000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]. Mix thoroughly. Syrup may also be prepared in the following manner: Press down into the neck of a percolator or funnel of suitable size a tapering piece of coarse, well-cleaned sponge, not too tightly, and in such a manner that the whole sponge shall be within the neck of the percolator, its upper end being about half an inch below its commencement. Place the sugar in the apparatus, make its surface level without shaking or jarring, then carefully pour on four hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (450 Cc.) [15 fl℥, 104♏] of distilled water, and regulate the flow of the liquid, if necessary, so that it will pass out in rapid drops. Return the first portions of the percolate, until it runs through clear, and, when all the liquid has passed, follow it by distilled water, added in portions, so that all the sugar may be dissolved, and the product measure one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏]. Mix thoroughly. Syrup thus prepared has a specific gravity of about 1.317"—(U. S. P.).
Description.—Simple syrup, when properly made, is sweet, nearly odorless, transparent, and colorless, of the consistence of thin molasses. Refined sugar should always be used.
Action and Medical Uses.—Simple syrup is nutritious and demulcent. It is employed in various mixtures, pills, medicated syrups, and extemporaneous prescriptions. Locally, it is applied to abrasions, burns, and scalds.
Related entry: Fluid Extract of Vanilla: Flavoring Extracts and Essences
Other tomes: AJP1881
Ɣ Soda Water Syrups.—The following formulae and directions for the preparation of soda water syrups, etc., are reproduced from Elixirs, by J. U. Lloyd.
Simple syrup made according to the U. S. P., is too thick for use as a soda syrup. It is difficult to mix it with the carbonated water, and it sticks to the glass. For a simple soda syrup, the following formula has stood the test of years:
SIMPLE SYRUP (Soda syrup).—Pure white sugar, 35 pounds (av.); distilled water, 20 pints. Pour the water into a kettle, add the sugar, and bring the mixture to a boil, stirring constantly. Then remove from the fire and strain while hot. This syrup will neither crystallize in cold, nor ferment in warm weather. However, the addition of certain vegetable extractives will cause any simple syrup to ferment. Either rock-candy syrup (a purified, uncrystallizable syrup resulting from the manufacture of rock-candy), or simple syrup, made according to the foregoing formula, maybe used in the formulae that follow when "syrup" is commended.
SYRUP OF ALMOND or PEACH.—Flavoring extract of almond (peach), 12 fluid ounce; syrup, 151 fluid ounces. Mix them together.
CHOCOLATE SYRUP.—Flavoring extract of Chocolate, 4 fluid ounces; syrup, 12 fluid ounces. Mix them together. This syrup is brown and unsightly.
SYRUP OF COFFEE.—Flavoring extract of coffee, 4 fluid ounces; syrup, 12 fluid ounces. Mix them together.
SYRUP OF COFFEE.—Coffee (Java), 8 ounces (av.); sugar, 20 ounces (av.); boiling water, a sufficient amount. Percolate the coffee with hot water until 10 fluid ounces of percolate are obtained, and in the percolate dissolve the sugar.
SYRUP OF GINGER.—Flavoring extract of ginger, 1 fluid ounce; syrup, 32 fluid ounces. Mix them together. This syrup is likely to be unsightly from the presence of finely divided resin. It is also too peppery for some persons, and must be made with less ginger than is called for by our formula. The formula that follows is milder, and yields a transparent product.
SYRUP OF GINGER.—Soluble extract of ginger, 2 fluid ounces; syrup, 30 fluid ounces. Mix them together.
SYRUP OF LEMON.—Syrup, 1 pint; flavoring extract of lemon, 2 fluid drachms; citric acid, 1 drachm; curcuma color, water, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Dissolve the powdered citric acid in 1/2 fluid ounce of water, add to the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color to bring to a lemon color. By referring to our remarks concerning lemon extract, the operator will find that the quality of syrup of lemon depends upon the quality of the lemon extract employed in making it. Since we give several formulae, choice thereof is readily made.
SYRUP OF NECTARINE.—Flavoring extract of nectarine, 1 fluid ounce; syrup, 15 fluid ounces. Mix them together.
SYRUP OF ORANGE.—Syrup, 1 pint; flavoring extract of orange, 2 fluid drachms; citric acid, 1 drachm; curcuma color, water, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Dissolve the powdered citric acid in 1/2 fluid ounce of water, add to the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color, modified by a small amount of cochineal color, to bring to an orange-yellow color. By referring to our remarks concerning orange extract, the operator will find that the quality of syrup of orange depends upon the quality of the orange extract employed in making it. Since we give several formulae, choice thereof is readily made.
SYRUP OF BLOOD ORANGE.—Syrup of blood or red orange is not distinguished from the foregoing excepting by its color. To make it, color the syrup of orange with cochineal color until it is of a rich-red color.
SYRUP OF PINEAPPLE.—Syrup, 1 pint; flavoring extract of pineapple, 1 fluid drachm; curcuma color, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Mix the simple syrup and the extract of pineapple, color the liquid appropriately with tincture of curcuma, and then add the frothing liquid.
SYRUP OF RASPBERRY.—Flavoring extract of raspberry, 2 fluid drachms; simple syrup, 1 pint; cochineal color, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid, if desirable.
SYRUP OF ROSE.—Flavoring extract-of rose, 1 fluid ounce; syrup, 1 pint. Mix them together and color red with cochineal color.
SYRUP OF SARSAPARILLA.—Flavoring extract of sarsaparilla, 1 fluid ounce; syrup, 1 pint. Mix them together and color dark-brown with caramel.
SYRUP OF STRAWBERRY.—Flavoring extract of strawberry, 2 fluid drachms; simple syrup, 1 pint; cochineal color, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid, if desirable.
SYRUP OF VANILLA.—Syrup, 1 pint; flavoring extract of vanilla, 2 fluid drachms; caramel, cochineal color, frothing liquid, of each, a sufficient amount. Mix the extract and the syrup, then add caramel and cochineal color enough to give a clear red-brown, and finally add the frothing liquid. By referring to our remarks on flavoring extract of vanilla, it will be seen that the quality of syrup of vanilla depends on the quality of the extract employed in making it. The operator may, therefore, select as his judgment dictates, but our experience is to the effect that the extract made of prime long vanilla is best suited to build up a business and retain it.
In like manner, other soda syrups may be extemporaneously prepared by mixing together flavoring extracts and syrup. It is unnecessary for us to consume space with details that will suggest themselves to every druggist.
Cream Syrups.—These syrups have long been favorites, and when made of pure, fresh milk are delicious. In former times, they were made with much care and replenished daily. Now we learn that condensed milk is often substituted for fresh milk, and simple syrup is mixed therewith. The formulae that follow are such as were used thirty years ago, and, in our judgment, have no superiors.
CREAM SYRUP (ORANGE CREAM).—Milk, 1 quart; sugar, 2 1/2 pounds. Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring constantly; strain, and when cool, add 4 fluid drachms of flavoring extract of orange and enough curcuma color to bring to a rich cream color. This syrup must be freshly made each day.
NECTAR SYRUP (NECTAR CREAM).—Milk, 1 quart; sugar, 2 1/2 pounds. Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring constantly; strain, and when cool, add 4 fluid drachms of flavoring extract of best vanilla (or nectar) and enough cochineal color to bring to a deep pink. This syrup must be freshly made everyday.
Fruit Syrups.—In recent years fruit juices have largely replaced some of the artificial flavors of. former times. These juices are manufactured in large amounts by experienced men, and druggists usually find it better to purchase them than to attempt their manipulation. They produce delicious syrups, and, in our opinion, are very much to be preferred to most of the ordinary imitation syrups that are made of artificial ethers. Full directions for making syrups accompany them, and we need not, therefore, consider these substances in detail. While we do not recommend an attempt at manufacturing these juices generally in a small way, we believe it often judicious for the apothecary to make syrups direct from some of the juicy fruits when they are plentiful and in season. The following are suggested if the respective fruit is abundant and cheap; if not, it is better to purchase fruit juices on the market and make the syrup therefrom.
BLACKBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Heat ripe blackberries to the boiling point and express the juice. To 4 pints of juice add 6 pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.
RASPBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice. To 4 pints of juice add 6 pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.
STRAWBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice. To 4 pints of juice add 6 pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.
CHERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To 4 pints of juice add 6 pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.
GRAPE (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To 4 pints of juice add 6 pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.
PINEAPPLE (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Wash and then slice the pineapples thinly, without removing the peel; then mix therewith 1 pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally stir the mixture for 2 or 3 days, then squeeze the syrup therefrom and bottle it.
QUINCE (FRUIT) SYRUP.—Quarter and seed the quinces without removing the peel. Slice thinly, and mix therewith 1 pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally stir the mixture for 2 or 3 days, then add some water if too thick, and squeeze the syrup therefrom and bottle it. Most persons peel such fruits as pineapple and quince, and thereby lose the rich aroma which mostly resides in the peel. Quince especially becomes insipid if peeled. Other fruit syrups can be made of juicy fruits by similar methods.
"Tonic" Syrups.—We can not too strongly condemn the indiscriminate use of nervines in the form of beverages. Perhaps there may be an excuse for the affixing of a name only to a fanciful, harmless syrup, the name reminding one of a remedy, and yet it seems as though the use or imaginary use of medicines should be left to the discretion of physicians.
Such "tonics," even as solution of phosphate of calcium in acid water, so fashionable in some instances at present, may better be left to the discretion of physician prescribers who understand the systemic condition of the "debilitated." It seems to us as though much injury may result in the continued drinking of phosphoric acid and other medicines by persons who do not need such substances, and who simply imagine that they should "take a tonic."
The same remarks apply to "iron tonics" and "calisaya tonics," and other similar syrups; and while "syrup of beef extract" may do no harm, it seems to us enough out of place as a beverage to give even a man in health the horrors and a dislike for beef tea in its proper place. We may, with our views of this matter expressed, be pardoned for omitting formulae for such compounds.
The following frothing liquids and colors are employed in the above formulae:
Frothing Liquids.—In some cases it is desirable that a syrup should froth considerably. Judgment, however, must be employed in adding the frothing liquid, as well as drawing the carbonated water into the syrup, for some syrups are naturally inclined to foam too much. Among our formulae we occasionally direct the use of a frother, and the operator can select from the following that which best suits his taste:
The white of 1 egg added to a quart of the syrup specified.
One ounce of mucilage of acacia added to a quart of the syrup.
Two drachms of tincture of soap bark (quillaya) added to a quart of the syrup.
The first and second of these have been in use for a long time; the last is a comparatively recent addition. That the first and second are both harmless is evident, and we have as yet heard no complaints concerning tincture of quillaya.
TINCTURE OF SOAP BARK (QUILLAYA).—Take of ground or powdered quillaya, 4 ounces; alcohol, water, of each a sufficient amount. Moisten the quillaya with a mixture of alcohol, 2 ounces; water, 14 ounces; and having allowed the moistened powder to stand 1 hour to expand, pack it loosely in a percolator. Cover with menstruum, and when it appears at the exit of the percolator cork the exit and allow the mixture to macerate from 12 to 24 hours. Then continue the percolation until 1 pint of tincture be obtained.
This tincture is of an opalescent color and is likely to precipitate by age; it should be kept in a cool locality. It can be made clear by increasing the proportion of alcohol in the menstruum, but this increase of alcohol is at the expense of the frothing power of the product. The larger the amount of alcohol the less its comparative value as a froth producer. One ounce of the foregoing tincture is sufficient for a gallon of syrup.
Colors.—Throughout this work (Elixirs, by J. U. Lloyd) various substances for coloring are occasionally commended. They are, or should be, harmless, and are necessary adjuncts, for the public taste must be catered to in the way of bringing certain syrups to resemble the colors of the fruits that they are designed to imitate. It is important that these colors should be innocuous, and luckily the shades desired can be easily obtained. At the present time, beautiful, concentrated red, yellow, green, and other colors, can be purchased of dealers in essential oils, and are warranted free from any poison or objectionable impurity, and may be substituted for those we commend. The colors we direct may be made as follows (natural fruit syrups do not demand artificial colors):
SOLUTION OF COCHINEAL (Carmine).—This preparation has been used some years by the writer in preference to any "tincture" of cochineal. The fat in cochineal causes such preparations to putrefy in warm weather; and to extract the fat, by means of ether, from the powdered cochineal, previous to tincturing it, is expensive and tedious. The term "tincture of cochineal" is scarcely appropriate as applied to the aqueous solutions made of cochineal, cream of tartar, and alum, and, as the object is simply to secure a coloring matter, the term might, with equal propriety, be applied to our solution of carmine, made as follows: Carmine, No. 40, 60 grains; distilled water, glycerin, of each, 4 ounces; ammonia water a sufficient quantity. Powder the carmine and triturate with the water, gradually adding ammonia water until the carmine disappears, and a dark-red liquid, free from insoluble matter, remains. To this add the glycerin and mix. Should this solution ever become murky, a little ammonia water will restore its transparency. Solution of carmine is necessarily alkaline, and can not be employed to color acid liquids. For all neutral or alkaline solutions it is admirable, and for soda water syrups is far preferable to aniline red.
CURCUMA (Turmeric) (Yellow).—Macerate 4 ounces of good curcuma in a pint of alcohol, shaking occasionally for 7 days, then filter.
CARAMEL (Burnt sugar) (Brown).—In a capacious iron kettle, over a direct fire, melt a pound of sugar, and increase the temperature until empyreumatic vapors have been freely driven off, and the residue has acquired a deep-black color. Then remove from the fire, allow to partially cool, and gradually and cautiously stir 2 pints of hot water into it. This operation must be performed in the open air or over a good flue, for the vapors are very irritating when inhaled. Caution must also be employed in pouring the water into the hot mass, for, if it be very hot, the material will be thrown violently from the kettle by the sudden expansion of steam. If caramel is only wanted in small amount, it is best to purchase it.
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.