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Arsenum,—Arsenic.

Other tomes: Ellingwood - Petersen

Preparations.

Acidum Arsenosum, Arsenous Acid, White Arsenic, As2O5.—soluble in water, 1 in 33 to 80, according to its physical condition. Dose, gr. 1/30-1/10, after meals.
Liquor Acidi Arsenosi, Solution of Arsenous Acid, Solution of Chloride of Arsenic,—strength 1/100. Dose, ♏ij-x, after meals.
Liquor Potassii Arsenitis, Solution of Potassium Arsenite, Fowler's Solution,—strength 1/100. Dose, ♏ij-x, after meals.
Liquor Sodii Arsenatis, Solution of Sodium Arsenate, Pearson's Solution,—strength 1/100. Dose, ♏ij-x, after meals.
Arseni Iodidum, Arsenic Iodide,—soluble in water. Dose, gr. 1/30-1/10.
Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri Iodidi, Solution of Arsenic and Mercuric Iodide, Donovan's Solution,—strength 1/100. Dose, ♏ij-x, after meals.
*Liquor Bromi Arsenitis, Solution of Bromine Arsenite (or Arsenic Bromide), Clemen's Solution,—Dose, ♏ij-vj, once or twice daily.
*Cupri Arsenis, Cupric Arsenite, contained in Paris Green. Is often employed as a poison. Dose, gr. 1/100 daily, in divided doses.

Toxicology. Arsenical poisoning is treated as follows —First, the prompt evacuation of the stomach. Then, administrations of the official antidote, which is the Hydrated Ferric Oxide (Ferric Hydrate) with Magnesia. This should be freshly prepared, and given in doses of ℥j, frequently repeated. then oil, milk, or mucilaginous drinks, to protect the mucous membrane; and diluents, alkaline mineral waters, Potassium Iodide, etc., to promote elimination.

Arsenic Antidote (U.S. P.), Ferric Hydrate with Magnesia. The two following solutions should be kept ready: (1) Solution of Ferric Sulphate 50 Cc. in water 100 Cc. (2) Magnesia, 10 grammes rubbed up with water 750 Cc. in a bottle of 1000 Cc. capacity. When wanted, shake the latter to a homogeneous magma, add it gradually to the former, and shake them together to a uniform, smooth mixture. Dose, ℥j, frequently repeated.

Chronic Arsenical Poisoning may be avoided by commencing with full doses (♏x of Fowler's solution), then reducing the dose regularly. Unless very small doses are used, Arsenic should always be given just after meals, so as to avoid its irritant actions on the gastric mucous membrane.

Physiological Action—Arsenic is a very painful escharotic, exciting violent inflammation. Taken internally it is a powerful irritant to the gastrointestinal and bronchial mucous membrane.

In Small Doses, Arsenic is a stomachic tonic, promoting the appetite and digestion; increases cardiac action, respiratory power, and the secretions of the intestinal tube; stimulates the mind, the sexual appetite, and intestinal peristalsis; causes rotundity of form and a fair skin. When tolerance is established, large doses are taken with impunity, as by the arsenic-eaters of Styria.

In Full Medicinal Doses continued, it produces oedema and itching of the eyelids, increased saliva, nausea, vomiting of mucus, diarrhoea or dysentery, epigastric pain and soreness, irritable and feeble heart, dyspnoea, disordered sensibility, herpes zoster, urticaria, eczema and other skin eruptions, jaundice and albuminuria.

In Toxic Doses, the phenomena maybe either gastro-intestinal or profoundly cerebral in character. In the first and most usual form, there is burning pain at the stomach, extending over the abdomen, vomiting, thirst, bloody stools, strangury, suppressed or bloody urine, a rapid and feeble heart, great anxiety, cold breath, albuminuria, collapse. In the nervous form, profound coma, like that of opium narcosis, comes on suddenly, and without any gastro-intestinal symptoms.

Post-mortem shows erosions, ecchymoses, and softening of the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane, congestion of the lungs and the bronchial mucous membrane, fatty degeneration of the internal organs, especially the liver and kidneys.

Therapeutics. Arsenic is very useful in—
Stomach Disorders, as chronic gastric catarrh, irritative dyspepsia, chronic gastric ulcer, cancer of the stomach, gastralgia, and vomiting due to these affections. Very small doses here, gtt. j of Fowler's solution.
Bronchial and Pulmonary Affections, as chronic catarrhs, chronic phthisis, spasmodic asthma, acute coryza, hay fever, etc., are much benefited by smoking arsenical cigarettes.
Diabetes Mellitus,—The Bromide has recently done good service; also Lithiated Arsenical Water as a beverage, made by mixing Lithium Carbonate and Sodium Arsenate in the ordinary carbonated water.
Diarrhoeas and Dysentery, chronic and choleraic.
Liver Disorders, of malarial origin, and catarrhal jaundice.
Anaemia and Chlorosis, to promote constructive metamorphosis.
Vomiting of Pregnancy, gtt. j of Fowler's solution before each meal.
Weak Heart, with dyspnoea and oedema of the feet and ankles resulting therefrom,—Arsenic with Iron and Strychnine.
Chorea, large doses, ♏v thrice daily, are very useful.
Malaria is well treated by Arsenic as an adjunct to Quinine.
Typhoid Fever,—Cupric Arsenite is highly recommended
Epithelioma, and many other forms of cancer, are retarded by it.
Chronic Skin Diseases, particularly psoriasis, and eczema squamosum, and those affecting the superficial strata of the integument.
Rheumatoid Arthritis has been well treated with Arsenic.
Locally, Arsenical paste is used as an escharotic in cancer, but is excessively painful. It is a good depilatory.

A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.



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