Other tomes: Petersen
Amyl Nitris, Amyl Nitrite, C5H11NO2, is a clear, yellowish, oily liquid, of a powerful and ethereal odor, extremely volatile, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, etc. It is produced by the action of Nitric or Nitrous Acid upon Amylic Alcohol, and may be administered by inhalation or internally, in doses of ♏ij -v, but larger doses are probably safe.
Glonoinum, Glonoin, Glyceryl Trinitrate, C3H5(NO3)3—is produced by the action of nitric and sulphuric acids upon glycerin, and is the dangerous explosive known by the name "Nitroglycerin." Official in the following—
- Spiritus Glonoini, Spirit of Glonoin (Nitroglycerin,)—contains 1 per cent. in alcohol. Dose, ♏ss-x. The strong tincture official in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (2d ed., Phila, 1883, page 235), is a 10 per cent. solution, and an extremely dangerous preparation, both as a medicine and an explosive.
- Tabellae Nitroglycerini (B. P.),—each tablet contains gr. 1/100.
Sodii Nitris, Sodium Nitrite, NaNO2,—deliquescent in the air, gradually oxidizing to sodium nitrate. Dose, gr. ss-iij, according to individual susceptibility.
Ethyli Nitris, Ethyl Nitrite, C2H5NO2,—constitutes about 5 p. c. of Spiritus Aetheris Nitrosi. (See ante, page 137.)
Physiological Action. The Nitrites agree in their general action, producing great vascular dilatation and consequent lowering of blood-pressure, by paralyzing either the sympathetic system, the vaso-motor centre, or the muscular coat of the arterioles;—tumultuous action of the heart, by relaxation of its inhibitory apparatus;—diminished sensation, motion and reflexes; a sensation of heat, but lowered body temperature; lowered respiration, from paralysis of the respiratory muscles and impairment of the ozonizing function of the blood; throbbing pain in the head, beating carotids, flushed face and vertigo. They are all muscle poisons.
Amyl Nitrite is the most prompt, but less enduring in action, and is best given by inhalation. Sodium Nitrite acts similarly, but less promptly. Nitroglycerin is less prompt and less violent, has a more enduring action, and is therefore more suitable for internal administration. Its headache is of intense frontal character, and persists for hours after the other effects have passed off.
Therapeutics. The Nitrites are well used in—
- Angina Pectoris, especially when characterized by a great rise of arterial tension,—Amyl Nitrite inhaled, to lessen the arterial spasm and palliate the agony of the attack, is usually very efficient.
- Epilepsy,—when the aura is felt, the inhalation of a drop or two of Amyl Nitrite will generally abort the paroxysm.
- Respiratory Neuroses, as spasmodic asthma, whooping-cough, laryngismus stridulus, etc.,—are relieved in many cases by these agents.
- Tetanus,—is palliated by Amyl Nitrite, especially during the period of fixation f the muscles of respiration.
- Neuralgic Dysmenorrhoea,—has often been benefited by Glonoin.
- Vomiting and Nausea, also Sea-sickness,—are benefited by the Nitrites.
- Cold Stage of Intermittents and pernicious remittents,—may be aborted by the inhalation of Amyl Nitrite, preventing internal congestions.
- Syncope, and in Chloroform Poisoning,—Amyl Nitrite to aid the circulation, conjoined with artificial respiration, etc.
- High Arterial Tension, from any cause,—the Nitrites are exceedingly useful, especially Glonoin.
- Chronic Interstitial Nephritis,—Glonoin has proved of great value, by redistributing the blood supply to the kidneys, cut off by degeneration of the renal ganglionic centres.
- Migraine, of the pale-face form,—Amyl Nitrite is indicated, or Glonoin.
- Convulsions, of various kinds, including puerperal,—the Nitrites are useful.
A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.