II. The Kinds. It is either Manured or Wild, of which latter in the next Chapter.
- The Manured is, Hordeum Distichum, Common Barley. (Hordeum vulgare. -Henriette.)
- 2. Hordeum Distichum latius, Bear or Battledore Barley. (Hordeum distichon. -Henriette.)
- 3. Hordeum Polyctichon, Square Barley, or Winter Barley. (Hordeum polydistichon -> Hordeum vulgare. -Henriette.)
- 4. *******, Galeni, ****** Hordeum nudum, Zeopyrum, Tritico Speltum, Naked Barley. (Triticum spelta or Hordeum vulgare. -Henriette.)
III. The Descriptions. The first has a Grassy Root, with many small Fibres or Strings, from whence rises up several Grassy Leaves and Stalks, sometimes more, sometimes less; which are shorter and softer than those of Wheat, and the Grassy Leaves are also shorter, broader and rougher, and the Stalks rise up to be 12, 14, 16, or 18 lnches high, according to the goodness of the Ground: at the Tops whereof comes forth Ears, having two rows of Corn, set in good order, each inclosed in a Husk, sticking close to the Grain, and having a long rough Aune or Beard thereat, which is many times greater and longer than Wheat, and whiter also, not very easily falling out of the Ear. Cordus says, that this kind makes a recompence for the smallness of the Ear, by the number of the Stalks each Grain or Root produces; for, says he, I have numbred above sixty Stalks rising from the Root of one Corn, but usually twenty, thirty, and forty.
IV. The second Kind is like the other in all respects, excepting in the Ear, which is indeed much broader, (tho’ it has but two rows, as the former) for that the Grains lye more straight out, not so much sloping upwards, and withal they are something larger, but the Awnes or Beard, not full out so long.
V. The third Kind. This is also altogether like the other Kinds in the Root, Stalk, Leaf and Grain but differs only in the Ear, this always, having four Rows of Grains, whereas the others have but two; Some Authors will have it, that this kind has sometimes six Rows of Grains on the Ear, called, Hordeum Hexasticum, or Cantherinum. But I am of Opinion it is of a different Kind from the four Rowed, or Square Barley; for that this is lesser, and without doubt is that small kind which is brought to us out of Germany, and fold in our Grocers Shops, called Pearl Barley: There is also a sort of large hul’d Barley, called French Barley, which is only our common English Barley hul’d , and is called French, because it was first of all hul’d in France.
VI. The fourth Kind. The Root is Grassy, with many Fibres or Strings at it whence rises up Stalks, like to the Common Barley, or rather like unto Spelt, save that the Ears are rounder; but it has not so many Stalks rising from the Root, as the Common Barley has; it has many rows of Corns in the Ears, which are inclosed in the Husks, but have not that hard or harsh Skin or Husk upon them, which the Common Barley has, with long, rough Awnes or Beards at their ends; and the Grains or Corns are more lank, small, yellow, and short, and naked, without Husks, growing almost like Wheat, the which in its yellowish Colour it somewhat resembles.
VII. The Places. The first or our Common Barley, is sown in all the Southern parts of the Kingdom: the second is sown in the North parts only: the third is reasonably frequent in our Land. The last is sown in several places of Germany, for the same uses as the other Barley is; this is rare with us, yet it is sown in our Gardens, where it flourishes very well.
VIII. The Times. Barley is sown with us in March, especially the two first kinds: the Square or Winter Barley, is said to be sown before Winter but all sorts of Barley (even the Winter Barley) are sown with us in England in March or April, and are ripe or fit for cutting in August following, or beginning of September at farthest.
IX. The Qualities. They are cooling and drying in the first Degree. They are gently Repercussive, Abstersive, Diuretick, and Anodyne, appropriated to the Lungs and Reins also Antifebritick and Galactogenetick, or breeding Milk.
X. The Specification. They are peculiar for allaying the heat of Blood in Fevers, to help Pissing Blood, and sharpness of Urine, being caused thro' the Application of Vesicatories, by an unskilful hand.
XI. The Preparations. You may have from the Grain,
- 1. Malt.
- 2. Beer.
- 3. Ale.
- 4. A Spirit.
- 5. Polenta.
- 6. Maza.
- 7. Ptisan.
- 8. Yest.
- 9. Foeces or Bottoms of Ale or Beer.
- 10. A Balsam.
- 11. The Meal or Flower.
- 12. Bread.
- 13. Cream.
- 14. Barley Water.
- 15. A Cataplasm.
- 16. A Mixture.
- 17. A Julep.
- 18. A Bath.
- 19. An Emplaster.
- 20. A Distilled Water from the green Plant, whilst the Grain is yet green, or not fully ripe.
- 21. Brewers Grains.
XII. The Malt. This is called in Greek,*****: in Latin, Byne, and Maltum; which is a made Latin Word, from the German Word Malts, or our English Word Malt, which is Barley prepared for Brewing Ale or Beer; the manner of which Preparation is thus: Take a Quantity of Barley, as much as you please, put it into Cisterns made for that purpose, which you may fill full with The Barley, then affuse so much Water thereon as may cover it and there let the Grain soak for two or three Days and Nights, till it is well swoln; then drain the Water from it by a Cock or Pipe below; which done, the fuelled Barley is to be taken out of the Cisterns, and spread equally, or of an equal thickness, upon the floor of a Malting House, about half a Foot thick, or more, and according as the Air is cold, it is covered with Cloths, or not covered, and is to lye till it begins to sprout, ready as it were to grow, which will be performed in two or three days, if the Weather is warm, or not very cold; otherwise it may lye longer: before it grows hot, which it is apt to do, it is to be turned with Shovels for that purpose, two or three times a Day for a Week or ten Days together, to cool it, and dry it: When it is thus dryed, it is put upon a Malt Kiln, and there it is throughly dryed by the help of Fire, made either of Straw, Furzes or Wood, to cause it to have the sweeter Resist or Taste: If it is dryed with Faggots or Wood, the Malt will taste Bitterish from the Smoak, and will easily be perceived in the Drink, which will taste Bitter: If it is dried with Furzes, or other light fluff, it will taste less Bitter; but the only choice Malt is that which is dried with Straw, for that is truly Sweet, and makes the only pleasant Drink. Malt being grosly Ground is made into Beer and Ale, as we shall in the next place shew. Ground Malt Fryed, and applied in a Bag, as hot as can be endured to the Sides or Belly, gives ease in Pains proceeding from Stitches, Colick, or Gripings caused through Cold or Wind: Made into a Pultise, it is good to asswage Inflamations, or other like Tumors or Swellings.
XIV. Ale. This was called in Greek by Dioscorides, ********. In Latin, Curmi, (from the Greek,) also Cerevisia, Cervisia, & Cervisia non lupulata, or Drink not Hopt, now called Ale. It is made of Malt exactly as Beer is made, without any difference, except in the Hopping, which is here wanting. But of late, in the Summer Time, the Brewers put in a small quanty of Hops, to make the Ale keep the better, which is the property of the Hops, confirmed to us by Experience. Ale without doubt is the most Ancient Drink of our Land; But it has lost much of its Reputation since Beer came into Fashion or Use; because the Hops make it more durable without sowering, and less fullsome and more wholsome. However, whether it is Ale or Beer that is drunk, that is the best and more wholsom which is recent or new, than that which is hard or (tale, the former being cleansing, and keeping the Body open and more Soluble; whereas the stale is astringent, and stopping, causing heartburnings in many, and breeding Acid Humors, and laying the Foundation of an Acid Ferment.
II. Other Grecians, says Pliny, Made it of Barly steeped for a Night in Water, and Husked by beating in a Mortar, after dried, and so parched or fried it the next day, and then ground it to Meal, to make Bread, Cakes, Puddings or Broath of.
III. The Italians Made it of Parched Barly, without any moistning, ground small; to xx. pounds of which they added Millet-feed in Pouder iij. pounds: Coriander-seed, Lin-seed, beaten of each j. pound, Salt ij. ounces and a half, and then mixt them all together.
IV. Galen Commends it to be Made of Fresh Barly not full out ripe or hardned, and before the Beard was white, or quite dry, and then indifferently parched, and reduced to Flower, adding nothing else to it. Many Nations used this Polenta instead of Bread; and the Cypriots tho’ they had Wheat growing with them, yet mostly eat this. It drys and astringes more than Barly it self binding the Belly and stopping fluxes, being drunk with Alicant, or red Wine: drunk with Water, it quenches thirst, and allays Inflamations of the Throat or Lungs. It was often eaten mixed with new Wine, or boiled up with Wine, and so eaten, as every one liked best.
XVII. Maza. This is only Polenta, or the Flower of Parched Barly, moistned with some kind of Liquor, as every one liked best: some with Water, some with Water and Oil Olive, some with sweet Wine, some with Wine and Oil, and some mixed it with Honey, as Hesychius, Hippocrates and Galen declare: but Galen lays that Maza, is hard of Digestion, and generates Wind: if it is well moistned with Water, sweet Wine, or Oil, and Honey also is added to it, it the sooner passes off.
XVIII. Ptisana. The Ancients made it of several sorts of Grain, not of Barly only, but of Wheat, Rice, Oats, Pease, Lentils. But Ptisan, simply considered, is always understood to be made of Husked Barly only. Hippocrates his way of making of it is thus, Take the best Barly, steep it in Water four Hours or more, then put it into a course Bag, and beat it with a Mallet or wooden Pestle till the Husks come off which take away by washing, dry it in the Sun, and keep it for use. Take of this hulled Barly what you please, and boile it in a sufficient quantity of Water till it breaks, and that the liquor is thick like Cream: this liquor is the Ptisan, which ought to be moderately liquid. This has no Astriction, nor troubles the Stomach or Bowels, nor swells or fills them with Wind, for the Windy part is vanished by boiling: it clogs not the Brest or Stomach, but by its Lubricity it easily digests and passes off, and quenches Thirst by its moistning quality; and for these properties sake, it is profitable both for sick and well: Thus Hippocrates and Galen. But Dioscorides further adds, That this Ptisan by reason of its being boiled, yields more nourishment than Polenta, is good against Exulcerations, and to help the hoarsness and Roughness of the Throat. This was the Ptisan of the Ancients: but the Phisicians in our Times make it thus, Take huled Barly, commonly called French Barly; boil it in Water till it be soft or broken, then beat it in a Mortar, and strain it, to which add blanched Almonds, Melon and Citrul Seeds, beaten to a Pulp, and then mixt together. This is their usual Ptisan, or Barly Milk. Ptisan Drink is thus made, Take hulled Barley, boil it in a first Water, and then in a second Water, but something less than in the former Recipe, strain away the Water from the Barly, and to iij. quarts of this Water, add Raisins of the Sun stoned iv. ounces, Blew Currants ij. ounces, Liquorice Bruised j. ounce, sweet Fennel seeds iij. drams, Coriander seeds j. dram and half, Maiden Hair a handful; boil again a quarter of an Hour, or better, then strain out for ordinary Drink. It is good against Coughs, Colds, Hoarsness, shortness of Breath, difficulty of Breathing, obstructions of the Lungs, costiveness of the Bowells, and also for weak and Cosumptive Bodies.
XIX. The Yest. It is the Superficial Faxulency of the Drink, raised therefrom in Working; and Yest begets Yest, hastning on and more speedily perfecting the Fermentation of the Liquor, which is a separating of the Flowery or Mealy Particles of the Malt from the Wort, and the stirring up an innate and latent Acid into act, to give the Drink a pleasant sort of briskness or Quickness, enlivening it with a Subtil and kind of Vinous Spirit. This Yest by Distillation yields a Vinous Spirit, of equal Virtues with the Spirit of Wine: and Bakers use Ale Yest instead of Leaven, to make their Bread light, which would otherwise be sad: but Physically it is chiefly of External use. Being immediately apply’d in Burns and Scalds, it presently takes out the Fire, and eases the smarting Pain, making the affect more easy and yielding to other Medicaments. Apply’d to Phlegmons, and other like Tumors, it helps to discusses and resolve them, unless they be Apostemated, and then it hastens the suppuration of the Apostem or Tumor, and alleviates the pain. Being boiled to a Salve or Emplastick body, and apply'd, it strengthens a weak Back, and weak Joints, eases Pain in those or other parts and is discussive and resolutive.
XX. The Faeces or bottoms of the Barels, called by some, Emptyings. They yield a Spirit by distillation like the Yest, which may be rectified to the like degree of Subtilty and purity; and may serve for all the same intentions the other will serve for, whether Chymical or Pharmaceutical: And the Faeces or Bottoms themselves are good to be outwardly applyed in all the same Cases, and to all the same Diseases for which we have prescribed the Yest in the former Section to be applyed. But this is not so good for the Fermentation of Worts, as Yest is, because it will scarcely work at all and if it does it is so meanly and weakly that it makes rather a Flat and Insipid or dead Kind of Liquor, than any thing which has briskness and Life: But it may be renewed, by adding a little sower Leaven to it, dissolved in a little of strong or sweet Wort, mixing them well together, ad digesting them in a warm place, for some little time.
XXI. The Balsam. It is made of strong Ale, by gently boiling it so long till it becomes thick like Chio Turpentine, and will spread on Leather like a Salve, or soft Cerote. This being apply'd warm to the Neck or Throat troubled with the Kings Evil, or Kernels, or other hard Swellings, gives much ease and either discusses or resolves them: it is good to resolve contracted Sinews and Tendons, comfort and strengthen weak Nerves and Joints, and is an excellent thing for weakness and pain in the Back, and to apply it to any part or Member which is hurt by spraining, falls, blows, or other the like Accidents.
XXII. The Meal or Flower. The Ancients of old, made of it Bread, 2. Kings 4. 42. John 6. 9, and 13. They made also Cakes of it, Judges 7. 13. Ezek. 4. 12. And so they have done almost in all Nations, and in most parts of this Kingdome, within these three or four score years last past; they made also of it a kind of boiled Bread or Puddings; and fried Bread or Pancakes; but now in our days Wheat being so plentiful with us, Barly is wholly disused, unless amongst the poorest of the People. The Turks at this day make a kind of Drink of the Meal or Flower which they call Chausset: Thus, they take the Meal or Flower which they make into Paste, and boil it in a great Caldron; after which it is made into small balls: these balls being cast into the Water, it will presently boile up of it self, and grow hot, without the help of any Fire, and become by working a kind of thick Drink. It is of a whitish Color, thick, of a good nourishment, fumes into the Head, and causes Drunkenness if it is too largely taken; and this kind of Drink, says Petrus Bellonius, is dually sold in all the Cities or Asia, in the Tap Houses appointed for it, and generally with them called Chausset. In the Levant, and other the Eastern parts of the World Barly is yet more eaten, and made more into Bread than Wheat, I suppose because it is more cooling, and preventive of Fevers; it is also cheaper for the poor and ordinary sort of People: it nourishes much less than Wheat, but the Grain being Maulted, makes a more excellent Drink, clearer, thinner, purer, more stomatick and Diuretick.
XXIII. The Bread. It is made of the Flower with a proportional quantity of Water and Salt; to every bushel of which flower, a sour Leaven, as big as a Mans fist doubled, or a Pint of Ale Yest, is added, being dissolved in the warm Water, with which the Paste or Dough is made: this being mixed with one part of the Flower, is covered with the other, and left in digestion for an hour or two, that the whole may be Leavened; then the Paste or Dough is made by mingling all well together, and kneading it with the hands, till it becomes a stiff Paste; which then is suffered to ly again about half an hour, and then made up into Loaves, which are after baked in an Oven. This Bread is proper to be eaten whilest new, agreeing then most with the Stomach, and nourishing best. Apply'd to the place where the Pain is, in a Vehe Head-ach, as soon as it comes out of the Oven, or as hot as the Patient can indure it, it gives present ease; and in a few times Application, cures it.
XXIV. The Cream. It is made of hull’d Barley, boiled in a first Water and cast away, then boiled in a second Water, till the Grain bursts, and is perfectly soft: which is then beaten well in a Mortar, and mixed in the Water in which it is boiled, and strained through a Cheese Cloth: then Melon seeds blanched are beaten to a Pulp, and mixed with Milk, and strained till all the oily and moist part of the seeds are taken forth: This Milk, is sweetned with double Refined Sugar, and mixed with the former stranings of the Barley; so you have Barley Cream. Some at Eating mix with it a little Damask Rose Water and Juice of Limons. This ordinarily taken is good against hot burning Fevers, and such as are weak, faint and feeble, labouring under Hecticks, and Consumptions, for it cools preternatural heats, and restores much. Without the Juice of Limons, it is good against sharpness of Urine, and such as make a Bloody Water.
XXV. Barley Water. It is made of hull’d Barley, boiled in a first Water, and that cast away, and then boiled in a second Water, half a pound of Barley to a Gallon of Water, adding also an ounce and half of burnt Harthorn, boiling them so long till the Barly is breaking: then the Water is strained from the other things, and made pleasant with the Juice of Limons, and double Refined Sugar. This is used as ordinary Drink for such as are in Burning or Malign Fevers, Hectick Fevers, Consumptions, or any other ways disturbed with heat; it cools, admirably quenches Thirst, and prevails against Diseases of the Lungs.
XXVI. The Cataplasm. 1. Take Barley Flower xij. ounces, Meal of Fleawort seeds iij. ounces, Honey, 0il of Lillies, of each ij. ounces, Water a sufficient quantity, mix and boil it to the consistence of a Pultise. This apply'd warm cures Tumors under the Ears, in the Neck and Throat, and other the like places.
2. Take Barley Meal or Flower, xvj. ounces, Pouders of Faenugreek seed, Lin seed and Rue, of each nj. ounces, Flowers of Melilot and Camomile chopt small of each ij. ounces, boile all in sweet Wine to a thickness. This apply'd warm, discusses Inflamations, expels Wind out of the Bowels, and eases Pains of the sides, Stomach, and Spleen.
3. Take Barly Flower xij. ounces, Pouder of Pomgranat peels and Myrtle Berries, of each iij. ounces, Red Wine, a sufficient quantity, mix, and boile to a Consistency: apply'd to the Belly, it is laid to stop the Loosness, or other Fluxes of the Belly.
4. Take Barley Flower xvj. ounces, sharp Wine Vinegar, a sufficient quantity, mix and boile to the thickness of a Cataplasm. It is good against Scurff, Dandriff, or Morphew in the Head or any other part, being laid on hot, and as Authors say helps the Leprosy.
5. Take Barley Flower xvj. ounces, white Salt and Honey, of each iij. ounces, white Wine Vinegar a sufficient quantity, mix and make a Cataplasm. Apply'd it is said certainly to cure the Itch.
XXVII. The Mixture. Take Barley Water xij. ounces, Sirup of Corn Poppies iij. ounces, Tincture of the same Flowers made with Spirit of Wine ij. ounces, mix them. Dose iij. ounces twice or thrice a day; with this I have cured several Plurisies. But Tho. Bartholinus, Germ. Ephem. An. 2. obs. 2. Professes to cure Vehement Plurisies with Barley Water alone.
XXVIII. The Julep. Take hulled Barley iij. ounces, boil it in a first Water, which cast away; boil it again in iij. quarts more of Water, Liquorice Bruised, Strawberry Leaves, Violet Leaves, of each ij. handfulls, boile till a quart or three pints is consumed, then strain out, and dulcifie it with iv. ounces of Sirup of Violets: It provokes Urine, and is very good in Cholerick Fevers. 2. Take hulled Barley viij. ounces, boil it in Water, which cast away and boile it again in iij. quarts more of Water, adding Fennel feeds Bruised, (towards the end of the boiling) iij. ounces, boil till the Barley breaks, then strain out, and sweeten with white Sugar Candy. It breeds Milk in Nurses plentifully, cools the heat and sharpness of Urine, and helps Pissing Blood, especially if it is caused by the Application of Vesicatories, or Blistering Plaisters. It is good against Coughs, Colds , Wheezings, Hoarsness Asthma's, &c.
XXIX. The Bath. Take Leaves of Mallows, Violets, Beets, Fumitory, Black Hellebor, of each iij. handfulls, Barley iv. pound, boil them in a sufficient quantity of Water for a Bath, till the Barley breaks; the Grain is to be boiled a considerable time first, and then the Herbs to be put in towards the end of the boiling. It is a very effectual thing against Scurff, Morphew, Leprosie, Scabs, Itch, and other breakings out, being often used.
XXX. The Emplaster. Take Barley Flower ij. pounds, Tar j. pound. Wax half a pound, Oil Olive a sufficient quantity, mix and boil to the consistence of a Cerote, or soft Emplaster. It is said to cure hard Swellings of the Throat and other places called the Kings Evil. Apply'd also, it is an admirable thing to cure the Gout.
XXXI. The Distilled Water from the green Barly, and the whole Plant. It is Distilled in the end of May, and is good to cool Inflamed Eyes, and for such as have Defluxions upon them, to stay the Humors, and to ease the Pain, being often dropped into them; white Bread being also dipt therein, and apply'd upon them, does the same.
XXXII. The Grains, which are left after Brewing. Tho they are generally used as Food or Meat for Horses, Cows, Sheep, Hogs, and Fowls; yet they have some Physical Virtues also: for they are beneficial in curing Lameness in the Hands, Arms, Legs or Feet, caused through Cold, or evil Humors, being fallen into them, as also shrinkings of the Sinews, Cramps, and pains in the Nerves or Joynts, if a Bathing-Tub or Barrel be filled with them whilest they are hot, or if cold, heated again as hot as may posslibly be suffered; and the Patient sit therein, so as to cover those parts, that they may gently sweat, as long as he can well endure it without Fainting: this I say, if it is done three or four times, or more if need requires it, will both abate the Swelling and ease the Pain; also restore the Nerves, Joints, and Limbs, to their pristin health and strength.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.