I. The Names. This is a Plant unknown to a the Greeks as far as I can find; and therefore has no Greek name: It is called in Latin Bugula, and Bugulum, Consolida media, and Solidago minor: Matthiolus calls it Laurentina: and Herba Laurentina: And in Engish, Bugle, middle Consound, and by some Sicklewort.
II. The Kinds. Authors make six kinds of this Plant, but all that grow with us, are referred unto two,
- 1. Bugla vulgaris, Bugla flore Caeruleo, Common Bugle, or Bugle with a Blew Flower; this Tragus calls, Prunella caerulea prima, vel major: but most Writers call it, Consolida media pratensis caerulea. (Ajuga reptans. -Henriette.)
- 2. Bugula flore albo, Bugle with a White Flower. (Ajuga reptans. -Henriette.)
III. The Description. The first of these has a stringy Root, spreading under the Earth round about, like unto Money-wort, or Penny-royal, from whence rises up a hairy square Stalk, about a foot or foot and half high; It has Leaves long, fat, and oleous, like those of Prunella or Self-heal, but larger, and a little longer; some green on the upper side, others more brownish, a little dented about the edges, and somewhat hairy. The Stalk is also set with such like Leaves, which stand thereon by Couples, from the middle almost whereof upwards, stand the Flowers together in roundles, compassing the Stalk, of a fair blew color, with Leaves also, but smaller and browner than those on the Stalk below: these Leaves and Flowers are set at distances, leaving between every roundle bare or void spaces. Among the Flowers are also small ones, as those of Self-heal, of a blewish, and sometimes of an Ash-color, fashioned like the Flowers of Ale-hoof or Ground-Ivy: which being past, there succeeds small, round, blackish Seed.
IV. Bugula flore albo, Bugle with a white flower differs not in its form or magnitude, either in its Roots, Stalks, Leaves, Flowers or Seeds, from the former, excepting in the color of the Stalks and Leaves, that these are always green, and never brown as the former; and in the color of the Flowers, that they are always White.
V. The Places. They grow in Woods and wet Copses and Fields, generally throughout England; but the latter is not so common to be met withal: Gerard says, that he found the first of these Plants in a moist ground upon Black Heath near London, and near a Village called Charlton, but the Leaves were green, and not brown.
VI. The Times. They flower from May until July, perfecting their Seed in the mean season: But the Root and the leaves next unto it, lying as it were upon the Ground, remain all the Winter until the next Spring.
VII. The Qualities. They are Temperate as to heat or cold, and dry in the first Degree: Astringent, Abstersive, Incarnative, Traumatick or Vulnerary; Neurotick, Stomatick, Hepatick, and Alterative.
VIII. The Specification. They are peculiar for the Cure of Wounds and Ulcers.
IX. The Preparations. You may make therefrom,
- 1. A liquid Juice.
- 2. An Essence.
- 3. A Decoction.
- 4. A Syrup.
- 5. A Distilled Water.
- 6. A Spirituous Tincture.
- 7. An Acid Tincture.
- 8. An Oily Tincture.
- 9. A Saline Tincture.
- 10. A Lotion.
- 11. An Ointment.
- 12. A Balsam.
- 13. A Cataplasm.
- 14. A Fixed Salt.
X. The Liquid Juice. It is excellent for such as are Livergrown, or troubled with the Rickets: It strengthens the whole Body, and being drunk inwardly to two, three, or four ounces at a time, it contributes to the healing of old Ulcers, running Sores, and Fistula's, and to the uniting of broken Bones, and Corroborating any Member out of Joint.
XI. The Essence. It Dries and Astringes moderately, and is of good use for such as have got a fall, and are inwardly Bruised, for that it dissolves the congealed Blood, and disperses it. It has all the Virtues of the Liquid Juice, and is very effectual to strengthen the inward parts, and to cause to heal all manner of running Sores, foetid Ulcers, and Fistula's, whether they be old or new. Dose five or fix spoonfuls in a Glass of Red Port Wine.
XII. The Decoction in Wine. It has the Virtues of the Juice and Essence, but not full out so powerful: it is good to cleanse old running Sores and Ulcers, by washing them therewith.
XIII. The Syrup. Whether it is made of the Herb, or of its Juice, it is an excellent thing against Coughs, Colds, Hoarsness, Wheezings, shortness of Breath, difficulty of breathing, Soreness of the Brest and Stomach, and other Distempers of those parts: it stops spitting of Blood, and cures Ulcers of the Lungs.
XIV. The Distilled Water. It is a good Vehicle to convey the other things in: But mixed with half its quantity of the Juice or Essence, it is good to wash a Sore or Ulcerated Mouth, and to cure such Sores or Ulcers which happen in the Secret Parts of Men or Women.
XV. The Spirituous Tincture. It heals admirably any Sore or Ulcer, whether inward or outward. In Ulcers of the Lungs it may be mixed with the Syrup aforenamed, thus: Rx of the said Syrup, one ounce: of the distilled Water an ounce and half: of the Tincture two drams: mix for a Dose to be given in Ulcers of the Lungs. Outwardly mixed with the Juice or Essence, it cleanses old Ulcers, Incarnates and heals, and sometimes heals simple Wounds at once or twice dressing; you may make it thus: Rx of the Juice or Essence Four ounces: of the Syrup an ounce and half: of this Tincture one ounce: mix them, to wash the Ulcer withal.
XVI. The Acid Tincture. It is an admirable thing against inward Wounds, Thrusts, or Stabs into the Body or Bowels, and is excellent to be mixed with all Wound Drinks, and to be given mixed with the Syrup, against the Rickets in Children: It stops the running of Gangreens, being applied; and opens Obstructions of the Liver, and Gall; and is good to be mixed with Washes for sore Mouths and Throats. Dose inwardly from thirty to Forty drops, in any specifick Vehicle.
XVII. The Oily Tincture. It cures Wounds at a few times dressing, but chiefly Wounds of the Nerves, for which it is a Sovereign thing; If a Nerve is prickt or wounded, it presently eases the pain, and prevents the return of Convulsions upon that account.
XVIII. The Saline Tincture. It is cleansing, and is good to wash and bathe those parts which are apt to break out with Botches, Boils, Scabs, Itch, Scurf, Morphew, and other Defoliations of the Skin.
XIX. The Lotion. It is made of the Juice thus: Rx. Clarified Juice of Bugle a pint: Honey three ounces: Allum six drams: mix and dissolve over a gentle fire. It is good to wash inveterate and running Sores with, which are very foul, and have been of long continuance; and it is as powerful and effectual to heal all running and stinking Ulcers in the Secret Parts of both Men and Women, and is an excellent Gargle for curing Sores, and Cankers in the Mouth and Throat.
XX. The Ointment. It is made of the Leaves of Bugle two parts: of Self-heal, Sanicle, and Scabious, of each one part bruised and boiled in Hogs Lard, or in a mixture of equal parts of Sheeps Suet, and Oil Olive, until the herbs are crisp, and then strained forth, and kept for use. It is a very good thing for healing any fresh or green Wound, tho' lacerated, torn, or bruised; it brings it to digestion, cleanses, incarnates, and speedily heals it. Parkinson says, that he could wish that all the good Women and Ladies, that desire to do good to their own Families, or their poor Neighbours, not to be without this Ointment, always ready prepared, and at hand by them.
XXI. The Balsam. It has the Virtues of the Ointment, but more digestive, cleansing, and incarnative, and therefore more fit for complicated Wounds, which are accompanied with Contusions, Dilacerations, and other ill Symptoms.
XXII. The Cataplasm. Made of the green Herb, it is good to abate Inflammations, and other hot Swellings in the Neck, Throat, and other Parts. It discusses Contusions, dissolves congealed Blood, and is profitably applied to those Parts which are hurt by any blow or fall: It is also profitable to be applied to all sorts of Ulcers, whether recent or inveterate, washing the same also with the Lotion prescribed in Sect. 19. aforegoing, every time you dress them. It is good to be applied to broken Bones, and Dislocations, where the parts have been long out of Joint, and have been often reduced, and fall out again by reason of Weakness: but as these things ought to applied outwardly, so the Essence, or Juice, ought to be used all along inwardly, to corroborate the Tone of the Parts.
XXIII. The Fixed Salt. It is opening, cleansing, and diuretick, removes all Tartarous matter out of the Reins, Ureters, and Bladder: and taken to one scruple with the Essence, it is good to heal Wounds, and Ulcers of the Urinary parts.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.