27b. OLEUM TEREBINTHINAE, U.S.—OIL OF TURPENTINE. SPIRITS OF TURPENTINE. A volatile oil distilled from turpentine, the markets of the United States being chiefly supplied by the North Carolina forests. A perfectly limpid, colorless liquid when pure, but generally somewhat colored from resin contained, or from oxidation; odor peculiar, strong, penetrating; taste hot, pungent, somewhat bitter. It is very volatile and inflammable. When purified by distilling with caustic soda, it constitutes the Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum, U.S., which is officially directed to be dispensed when oil of turpentine is required for internal use.
CONSTITUENTS.—Oil of turpentine consists of several terpene hydrocarbons having the formula C10H16 (pinene), sp. gr. 0.855-0.870. When exposed to the air, it becomes thick from the oxidation of some of these hydrocarbons into resin. When the rectified oil is treated with nitric acid, large crystals of terpin hydrate (Terpini Hydras, U.S.) separate out, having properties similar to the oil of turpentine. Dose, 2 gr. (0.1 Gm.). The European turpentine oil contains pinene and sylvestrine; it forms with hydrochloric acid a crystalline compound, C10H16HCl (artificial camphor). Terebenum is a liquid derived from the oil (consisting chiefly of pinene) by treatment with sulphuric acid, boiling point 156°-160°C. Dose: 8 drops (0.5 mil).
ACTION AND USES.—Stimulant, diuretic, hemostatic, occasionally diaphoretic; in large doses anthelmintic and cathartic; externally rubefacient, in rheumatism, etc. As a stimulant it is often beneficial in low forms of fever, and, when death is inevitable, to prolong life beyond the natural limit. Dose: 5 to 15 drops (0.3 to 1 mil) in emulsion.
- OFFICIAL PREPARATIONS.
- Linimentum Terebinthinae, (35 per cent. with resin cerate).
- Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum, Dose, 5 to 15 drops (0.3 to 1 mil) .
- Ceratum Cantharidis., Emulsum Olei Terebinthinae.