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Fluid Extracts of the New Pharmacopoeia, cont'd.

Preparations:

Cont'd from previous page.

EXTRACTUM CAPSICI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Capsicum.—This is also a new preparation. With the oleoresin and tincture already officinal, the need for a fluid extract of capsicum seems extremely limited. This preparation was not recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, but is one of the eleven introduced by the Committee of Revision; the menstruum directed for its preparation is alcohol, which will no doubt furnish a product fully representing the drug, and possessing much warmth of character.

EXTRACTUM CASTANEAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Castanea.—This is also one of the newly-introduced fluid extracts; in the preparation of this fluid extract the Committee of Revision direct five hundred cubic centimeters of boiling water to be added to one hundred grammes of chestnut leaves, in number thirty powder; after two hours maceration the liquid is to be expressed, the residue transferred to a percolator, and water added until the powder is exhausted. The united liquids are to be evaporated to two hundred cubic centimeters, and after cooling, sixty cubic centimeters of alcohol are added; after the insoluble matter has subsided, the clear portion is to be decanted and the remainder filtered, the united liquids are to be evaporated to eighty cubic centimeters, allowed to cool, and then enough alcohol is added to make the fluid extract measure one hundred cubic centimeters. The formula recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy avoids the treatment with hot water, the repeated evaporations of the entire quantity and also the total loss of sixty per cent. of alcohol involved in the officinal formula. The menstruum recommended in this formula was composed of alcohol one part, and water two parts; to eighty parts of this mixture twenty parts of glycerin were added, and after this was used, the percolation was finished with the alcohol and water, the first seventy-five parts of percolate being reserved and the remainder evaporated to a soft extract, dissolved in the reserved portion, and the quantity made up to one hundred parts with some of the menstruum.

This formula has been made up a number of times without any special difficulty, the product being an elegant fluid extract, depositing only a slight precipitate, and no doubt possessing whatever medicinal properties the chestnut leaves may contain.

EXTRACTUM CHIMAPHILAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Chimaphila.—This is one of' the preparations of the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, the menstruum there directed being alcohol eight fluid ounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water five fluidounces, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol. In the present Pharmacopoeia, diluted alcohol is directed, with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of menstruum; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended one part of alcohol and two parts of water for the menstruum, with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts. This weaker menstruum thoroughly exhausts the pipsissewa, but when kept long a considerable precipitate is formed, therefore the officinal menstruum is probably the best, ten per cent. of glycerin would also seem to be sufficient for this fluid extract.

EXTRACTUM CHIRATAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Chirata.—This is one of the newly-introduced fluid extracts, and one that surely there was no pressing demand for; chirata had its day, years ago, and is not likely to gain even a temporary revival in the near future. The menstruum directed for the preparation of the fluid extract is diluted alcohol with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first One hundred parts, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended one part of alcohol and two parts of water, as the menstruum without glycerin; the fluid extract prepared after this formula precipitated considerably, but not as much as some samples prepared with more alcoholic menstruums; the glycerin in. the officinal formula will probably prevent precipitation to some extent.

EXTRACTUM CIMICIFUGAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga.—The Pharmacopoeia of 1870, the present Pharmacopoeia, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, all recommend alcohol of .817 to .822 specific gravity, as the menstruum for this preparation; this unanimity of opinion is fully warranted by the product; a sample of the fluid extract prepared over three years ago is quite free of sediment, and as bright and clear as when first made.

EXTRACTUM CINCHONAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Cinchona.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed as the menstruum, alcohol eight fluidounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water five fluid ounces, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs, the use of twenty-five parts of glycerin and seventy-five parts of alcohol, and then finishes the percolation with a sufficient quantity of a mixture of three parts of alcohol and one part of water. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended a menstruum composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water, with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts. This furnishes a fluid extract which has kept several years with only a very slight precipitation, the officinal menstruum is so nearly identical that its product would, no doubt, keep as well.

EXTRACTUM COLCHICI RADICIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Colchicum Root.—As the menstruum for this preparation, the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, directed alcohol twelve fluidounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water one fluidounce, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs two parts of alcohol and one part of water, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended diluted alcohol. A sample of the fluid extract prepared over three years ago with diluted alcohol, is at the present time of a deep red color, perfectly transparent, and contains only the slight deposit that was formed soon after it was made. There seems to be no necessity for the use of the stronger officinal menstruum.

EXTRACTUM COLCHICI SEMINIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Colchicum Seed.—The menstruum directed for this preparation in the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, was alcohol twelve fluidounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water one fluidounce, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs two parts of alcohol and one part of water; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same strength. A sample of fluid extract prepared with this menstruum over three years ago remains perfectly clear and entirely without deposit, a very few small globules, probably of oil, are noticed on the top, this would most likely be prevented by the use of diluted alcohol as the menstruum, and this, according to careful experiments reported in the AMER. JOUR. PHARMACY, Jan., 1881, p. 6, is strong enough for the extraction of the whole of the alkaloid.

EXTRACTUM CONII FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Conium.—For this fluid extract the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed the following menstruum: Alcohol eight fluidounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water five fluidounces, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding to the dilute percolate previous to evaporation, one fluidounce of glycerin and one hundred and eighty grains of muriatic acid. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol to be used as the menstruum, and adds three per cent. of diluted hydrochloric acid to the weak percolate previous to evaporating it. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy also recommended diluted alcohol as the menstruum, and one per cent. of hydrochloric acid. A specimen of the fluid extract made over three years is not now quite clear, but has only slightly precipitated.

EXTRACTUM CORNUS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Cornus.—Owing to the dropping from the Pharmacopoeia of two other species of cornus and of conium leaves, the names of this and the preceding fluid extract have been shortened. The menstruum for this preparation, directed by the Pharmacopoeia of 1870, was alcohol eight fluidounces, glycerin three fluidounces, and water five fluidounces, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts of menstruum. This is as recommended by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and the resulting fluid extract keeps remarkably well, with only a slight precipitate, such as is formed in most fluid extracts soon after they are made.

EXTRACTUM CUBEBAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Cubeb.—There appears to be no difference of opinion in regard to the proper menstruum for this preparation, the stronger alcohol directed by the former and the alcohol of the present Pharmacopoeia, being almost identical in strength. This fluid extract will keep indefinitely, and as it is not unpleasant to the taste, it is surprising that it is not more used in place of powdered fruit.


The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 55, 1883, was edited by John M. Maisch.



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