Extractum Opii (U. S. P.)—Extract of Opium.
Related entry: Opium (U. S. P.)—Opium
Preparation.—"Powdered opium, one hundred grammes (100 Gm.) [3 ozs.av., 231 grs.]; sugar of milk, recently dried and in fine powder, water, each, a sufficient quantity. Triturate the powdered opium in a mortar thoroughly with one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fl℥, 391♏] of water, repeat the trituration occasionally, in the course of 12 hours, then filter through a rapidly acting, double filter, and wash the filter and residue with water, until the filtrate is nearly colorless. Concentrate the filtrate and washings in a tared capsule, on a water-bath, until the residue weighs about two hundred grammes (200 Gm.) [7 ozs. av., 24 grs.], and allow it to become cold. Then determine the weight exactly, transfer twelve grammes (12 Gm.) [185 grs.] of it to an Erlenmeyer flask, having a capacity of about one hundred cubic centimeters (100 Cc.) [3 fl℥, 183♏], and determine in this portion the amount of morphine by the process of assay given below, using the quantities of liquids there directed for four grammes (4 Gm.) [62 grs.] of the dry extract. In another portion of five grammes (5 Gm.) [77 grs.] determine the amount of water by drying it in a flat-bottomed capsule, at 100° C. (212° F.), until it ceases to lose weight. From the results thus obtained ascertain, by calculation, the amount of morphine and of water contained in the remainder of the extract, add to this enough well-dried sugar of milk to bring the quantity of morphine in the final dry extract to 18 per cent, then evaporate the whole to dryness, reduce it to powder, and transfer it to small, well-stoppered vials"—(U. S. P.).
ASSAY (U. S. P.), Assay of Extract of Opium.—"Extract of opium, dried at 100° C. (212° F.), four grammes (4 Gm.); ammonia water, two and two-tenths cubic centimeters (2.2 Cc.); alcohol, ether, water, each, a sufficient quantity. Dissolve the extract of opium in 30 Cc. of water, filter the solution through a small filter, and wash the filter and residue with water, until all soluble matters are extracted, collecting the washings separately,. Evaporate in a tared capsule, first, the washings to a small volume, then add the first filtrate, and evaporate the whole to a weight of 10 Gm. Rotate the concentrated solution about in the capsule until the rings of extract are redissolved, pour the liquid into a tared Erlenmeyer flask having a capacity of about 100 Cc., and rinse the capsule with a few drops of water at a time, until the entire solution weighs 15 Gm. Then add 7 Gm. (or 8.5 Cc.) of alcohol, shake well, add 20 Cc. of ether, and shake again. Now add the ammonia water from a graduated pipette or burette, stopper the flask with a sound cork, shake it thoroughly during 10 minutes, and then set it aside, in a moderately cool place, for at least 6 hours, or over night.
"Remove the stopper carefully, and, should any crystals adhere to it, brush them into the flask. Place in a small funnel 2 rapidly-acting filters of a diameter of 7 Cm., plainly folded, one within the other (the triple fold of the inner filter being laid against the single side of the outer filter), wet them well with ether, and decant the ethereal solution as completely as possible upon the inner filter. Add 10 Cc. of ether to the contents of the flask, rotate it, and again decant the ethereal layer upon the inner filter. Repeat this operation with another portion of 10 Cc. of ether. Then pour into the filter the liquid in the flask, in portions, in such a way as to transfer the greater portion of the crystals to the filter, and, when this has passed through, transfer the remaining crystals to the filter by washing the flask with several portions of water, using not more than about 10 Cc. in all. Allow the double filter to drain, then apply water to the crystals, drop by drop, until they are practically free from mother-water, and afterwards wash them, drop by drop, from a pipette, with alcohol previously saturated with powdered morphine. When this has passed through, displace the remaining alcohol by ether, using about 10 Cc., or more, if necessary. Allow the filter to dry in a moderately warm place at a temperature not exceeding 60° C. (140° F.), until its weight remains constant, then carefully transfer the crystals to a tared watch-glass and weigh them. The weight found, multiplied by 25, represents the amount of crystallized morphine obtained from 100 Gm. of the extract"—(U. S. P.).
Description, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—(See Opium). This is essentially a purified extract, the inert matter having teen removed in its preparation. It has been found that many persons who can not take the crude drug without experiencing many unpleasant symptoms, can take the extract without its being followed by any of these symptoms. The dose is 1/4 to 1/2 grain. The extract may be combined with other extracts, and may, if desired, be dissolved in water.
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.