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Antimonium,—Antimony.

Preparations.

Antimonii et Potassii Tartras, Antimonium and Potassium Tartrate, (Tartar Emetic),—Dose, gr. 1/16-1/4; after tolerance as high as gr. ij may be given.
Vinum Antimonii,—has 2 grains of Tartar Emetic to the ℥. Dose, ♏v-xx.
Syrupus Scillae Compositus, Compound Syrup of Squill, (Cox's Hive Mixture),—Dose, ♏v-ℨj;—contains about 3/4 grain of Tartar Emetic to the ℥.
Pulvis Antimonialis, Antimonial Powder, (James' Powder) ,—Dose, gr. iij-viij. Is one-third Oxide of Antimony, with two-thirds Calcium Phosphate.

Treatment of Poisoning by Tartar Emetic. Administer Tannic Acid, in some form, as an antidote; then Opium or Alcohol as an antagonist, and demulcent drinks freely to protect the mucous membrane.

Physiological Action of Tartar Emetic. It is a systemic and local emetic, a diaphoretic, an arterial sedative, and a gastro-intestinal irritant; has a styptic taste, and causes constriction of the fauces. It promotes body waste and the rapid excretion of waste products. In small doses, it stimulates the secretions of the stomach and intestinal canal, the salivary glands, liver and pancreas. In larger doses, it produces vomiting and purging, with evacuations much like the "rice water discharges" of cholera, and great prostration of the vital powers. Toxic Doses produce similar symptoms, with epigastric pain, cyanosis, delirium, motor and sensory paralysis, suppression of urine, collapse,—much the phenomena of Asiatic Cholera. It is paralyzant to the heart muscle, combines with the red blood-corpuscles, depressing their oxidizing power, lowering the blood pressure, and reducing the temperature. Being eliminated by all the excretory organs, including the skin, it excites follicular inflammation therein, resulting in a papular eruption on the integument, which becomes vesicular and pustular, the pustules being umbilicated, like those of variola. This may be produced by rubbing it into the skin.

Therapeutics. The use of Tartar Emetic as an antiphlogistic was formerly very much abused, and has now practically become obsolete. Its emetic action, though certain, is too slow to be of service in poisoning cases, and too depressant for children. In small doses, however, it is very efficient in acute inflammations of the respiratory tract, especially—
Pneumonia and Bronchopneumonia,—gr. 1/50 for adults, 1/100 for children, repeated every 2 hours until diaphoresis and lowered pulse.
Acute Cold and Bronchitis,—gr. 1/16 with gr. 1/16 of Morphine, is excellent.
Asthma and Emphysema, with lack of secretion,—are much relieved by gr. 1/16, to relax spasm and promote secretion.
Wheezing of young children, with dyspnoea and cough, simulating asthma, may be stopped by gr. j in O 1/2 Water, of which teaspoonful doses hourly.

A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.



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