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Chap. 05. Of the Third Qualities.

I. The third Qualities of Medicines are such as are Appropriate, that is to say, which are appropriated to some principal and noble Parts of the Body, the knowledge of which Physicians have learned and obtained, either,
1. From the signatures of the Medicaments themselves.
2. Or from a long Series of Practice and Experience.

II. And therefore as Medicines are said to be appropriate, to the most noble and principal Parts of the Human Frame, so from them they take their Denominations or Names, and accordingly are said to be,

Of which in their respective order.

III. 1. Cephalicks. These Medicines are said to be appropriated to the Head, and have respect chiefly to the Brain , the Medulla oblongata, and the Membranes called Pia & Dura Mater, but have very little to do with the Tongue, for that is a very unruly Member. The Brain is the seat of Apprehension, Judgment, and Memory, and by Nature moderately hot; and so is very easily afflicted by either too much heat or cold, but chiefly by the latter, and for the most part by too much moisture, and therefore the Medicaments appropriated to the Head and Brain, are generally hot and dry, and of very subtil, thin, and volatile Parts, for otherwise they could have no affection upon those Parts. To these some add Ptarmicks and Sternutatories, 'tis true, these will purge the Brain and Head from a world of pituitous, cold and moist Recrements, but these are not proper Cephalicks, for what they do, is by the Virtue of their violent heat, and strong attractive power. Whether there be any cooling Cephalicks is a doubt; if cooling things affect the Head and Brain, they do it simply, either by their cold Quality, or by cooling other Parts over-heated, which by Sympathy or Consent, affect the Head.

IV. 2. Neuroticks. These are Nervous Medicaments, and are all hot and dry, from the second even to the fourth degree, off a very thin Substance and penetrative Parts, without which they could not pierce and affect the Nerves, to ease their extravagant Pains, as in Cramps and Convulsions, or to warm, comfort, and strengthen them, as in Palsies, &c. they ought to be very subtil and volatile, that they may agree with the Animal Spirits, and as it were recuperate them. Their use is both Internal, given in some proper vehicle, and External, being applyed to the Parts affected, and all along down the Spine or Back-Bone, from whence all the Nerves of the extream Parts, as well as some others spring. They very much agree in their Qualities with Cephalicks, because the Root or Original of all the Nerves thro' the whole Body, arise from the Brain.

V. 3. Stomachicks, or Stomach Medicaments. These are such as open Obstructions in the Stomach, ease its Pains, and strengthen its Tone. They may be either hot or cold, and so affect the Part, according to the Indisposition which attends it.

  • 1. When it is obstructed, the Appetite is diminished or depraved, with a kind of nauseousness concomitant: And this is remedied chiefly by acid Aperitives.
  • 2. When it is pained, or there is a sickness at Stomach, it is commonly from being either overheated, and then cooling Stomachicks are to be given; or over-cooled, and then hot Stomachicks are to be exhibited; or from vehemently acid or sharp Humours in it, and then Absorbents, or fixt Alcalies, will be chiefly of use.
  • 3. When its Tone is weakned, or hurt, then the Digestion is bad, the Concoction is weak, and so a bad Chylus is generated; whence the Retentive Faculty is also many times profligated, and whence proceed sometimes the Scurvy, and Rheumatick Pains, or the Gout, and if it be of long continuance, it induces a Consumption, because the Body will want a suitable Nourishment.

And these things are remedied (after due evacuation) by Stomaticks, of a hot and dry Quality, of thin Parts, and Confortative withall, which have power to warm, comfort, and strengthen it, and have likewise an Astringent property, which strengthens the Retentive Faculty.

VI. 4. Pulmonicks, or Pectorals. These are Medicaments appropriated to the Lungs, and have regard either to the Part afflicted, or to the Matter afflicting.

  • 1. Those which regard the Part afflicted, are such as stop bleeding, if any Vessel is broken in the Lungs, and by a kind of Styptick Quality, have power to conglutinate or heal it; or if there be any Ulcer in the Lungs, have the power of cleansing it, and healing it withall, which is done by either a Balsamick Property or by a Specifick, of which Nature is Cinnabar of Antimony, and all sweet Preparations of Mercury, which entring into the mass of Blood, and being dissolved in it, give such a healing property to it, that by its continual passage thro' the Lungs, it does at length perfectly heal them.
  • 2. Those which regard the Matter; and these are such as digest and thicken the Rheumatick or pituitous Matter, stuffing them (which causes Asthma's, Wheezing, Hoarseness, loss of Voice, Coughs, &c.) and cause it to be expectorated, and those are they which are most usually called Pectorals.

Besides, they many times clear the Stomach of what sticks to it, causing it in some measure to be spit up.

VII. 5. Pleuriticks. These are such things as are appropriated to the Pleura; and generally give present ease to Pains and Swellings in the Sides, Stitches; the Pleurisie, &c. and they are either Anodyns or Narcoticks. The Anodyns, are such things as are hot and dry, and abound with an admirable volatile Spirit and Salt, such as Salt of Urine, volatile Sal Armoniack, volatile Salt of Tartar, volatile Salts of Beans, Pease, and other Pulses, as also Sal Volatile Oleosum. The Narcoticks, are such things as are made of the Wild or Corn Poppy Flowers and Heads, and of Opium so that Opiates, especially such as are repleat with volatile Sal Armoniack, Salt of Hartshorn, of Tartar, &c. all immediately affect the Pleura, and give present ease in the disaffections thereof.

VIII. 6. Cardiacks, or Cordials. These are Medicines appropriated to the Heart; the Fountain of Life, and Seat of the Vital Spirit; the Original of Innate Heat, and of Vigor and Action. And therefore Cordials ought to abound with Subtilty and Volatility, to revive the Spirits, and with Heat to strengthen the Heart, and make it perform its action. Those Cordials which revive and refresh the Spirits, must be Spirituous, as Wine, and Spirit of Wine: And those which strengthen the Heart, are either Hot, when its natural heat is decayed or wasted: Or Cold, when it is heat above Nature, by either Fevers or any violent Passion, or by Poison the first of which are Antifebriticks. The second, Confortatives. The third, Alexipharmicks, or Antidotes against Poison.

IX. 7. Hepaticks. These are Medicaments appropriated to the Liver. And these are considered in a threefold respect,

  • 1. As they open its Obstructions.
  • 2. As they resist its Diseases.
  • 3. As they strengthen it.

As to the first, Hepatick Aperitives are to be chosen, which may open its Vessels, and keep them free from Obstruction, without which it is impossible that the Ρerson should be Well, but must at long run fall into a Consumption: These cut and extenuate without any vehement heat, and yet cleanse.

As to the second, Hepaticks opposite to the Disease afflicting the Liver, are to be chosen: So if there is an Inflammation, cooling, cleansing, and extenuating things are to be used: If a Scirrhus, things softening and dissolving. With a Decoction of Juniper-berries in Water, drank for a Year together as ordinary Drink, I cured a νastly great Scirrhus of the Liver, outwardly to be felt, hard, and as large as a great twopenny Loaf.

As to the third. The Liver after all is to be strengthned, and this be done by Hepaticks, gently Astringent, for seeing its use is to help towards the perfection of the Blood, it needs some adstriction to preserve its heat, and strengthen it. Yet the Liver requires not so great astringents as the Stomach, because the passages of the Stomach are larger, and more open, than those of the Liver, so that if they be very Binding, they may be hurtful to the Liver, and cause Obstructions.

X. 8. Spleneticks. These are Medicines appropriated to the Spleen. Spleneticks are considered in a threefold respect also.

  • 1. To such as open its Obstructions, and they are Aperitives, which ought to be so powerful, as to penetrate into its most inward recesses; for the whole Substance of the Spleen, is a kind of Animal Honeycomb.
  • 2. To resist its Diseases; and these in an Inflammation, ought to be cooling and discussing: In a Scirrhus, to be highly Resolutive, not in the least binding; and outwardly Emollients may be applied.
  • 3. To strengthen it. And these are such as are temperate, in respect to heat or driness; yet they ought to have so much adstriction, as to confirm its natural and healthful Tone.

XI. 9. Mesentericks, or Hypochondriacks. These are Medicines dedicated to the Mesentery: Its grand failure is from Obstructions, which are either from viscous or clammy Humors, or from Wind, which induce a profound Pining, or universal Consumption of the whole Man; and in the end (if not removed) Death. Upon this Axle-tree, the whole Orb of Life turns; and when it breaks, the Man sinks, and the Body returns to its first Principles. And therefore the most powerful Deobstructors or Aperients, are specifick Mesentericks; and these in the Mineral Kingdom, are deduced from Chalybeates; In the Animal, from Volatil Salts, as Sal Volatile Oleosum Sylvij; And in the Vegetable Kingdom, such things as have power to dissolve congelation of the Juices, as Volatil Salts of Beans, and of Tartar; or to cut the viscid and clammy Matter, as Cresses, Horse Radish, Mustard, Rocket, in cold habits of Body; or Juices of Citron, Limons, or Lime Juice, and their Syrups, in hot Constitutions joined with other proper Aperients, which may have a power to Penetrate into the most inward recesses of this Bowel. Add to these Carminatives, conjoined with Sylvius's Spiritus Anticolicus, where Wind seems to have the predominancy.

XII. 10. Nephriticks. These are Medicines appropriated to the Reins and Bladder. In the Reins, a separation is made of the Serum from the Blood, without which Man could not live, and the Bladder, of a sufficient magnitude, is the receptacle to contain it. Therefore it is necessary by appropriate Medicaments, to keep those parts clear, and free from Obstruction, and to retain their strength, that they may the better perform their Offices. The Diseases afflicting the Reins and Bladder, are chiefly,

  • 1. Obstructions by a tartarous or viscid Mucilage.
  • 2. Stones Gravel, or Sand,
  • 3. Inflammation.
  • 4. Pissing Blood,
  • 5. Ulcers.

The first, is cured by Aperients and Diureticks.

The second, by Lithontripticks.

The third, by cooling Diureticks, as Sal Prunellae dissolved in a Diuretick Wine.

The fourth, by Stypticks and Narcoticks, as Catechu, and Opiates, prepared with Acids.

And the last, by Balsamicks, as Balsams of Chili, Gilead, Peru, Capivij, Venice, Strasburg, and Chio Turpentines, and sweet prepared Mercury, which transcends all other things.

XIII. 11. Hystericks. These are Medicines appropriated to the Womb. It is a Part which one would think had some Sense in it, because it is pleased and delighted with some things, as Aromaticks, Perfumes, and the like, and displeased (so as to fly from them) with Stinking and ill-scented things, as Turds, Assa foetida, and other stinking things of like nature. Therefore since Vapours, Hysterick Fits, and Hysterick Convulsions, proceed from the Womb, those things which alleviate them, suppress the Fumes, and reduce the Womb to its place, ease its Pains, and profligate it. Convulsive Motions are properly called Hystericks, so Musk, Ambergrise, Aromaticks, applied to the Nose, induce Vapours, Fits, Convulsions, &c. Whereas applied to the place of Conception, suppress them all. But Assa foetida, and other stinking things applied below, bring those Diseases; whereas held to the Nose, or taken inwardly by the Mouth, they frustrate and Cure them. Medicines which provoke the Terms, or Loches, &c. or which suppress or stop them, are accounted Hystericks; but of them we shall treat in the fourth Qualities.

XIV. 12. Arthriticks. These are Medicines appropriated to the Joints. And seeing that they consist chiefly of tendinous and nervous Parts, therefore they are chiefly composed of Neurotick Medicaments, which have a heating and drying Quality, gently astringent or binding, and withall having a peculiar strengthening Property: But because the Joints are the extream parts of the Body, and more remote from the Vital Center, they require the stronger Medicaments. Pains are eased by Anodyn Arthriticks, mixed with Narcoticks, as a mixture of Camphir, and Spirit of Wine, with Opiates. Inflammations are abated by Arthritick Baths: And the Arthritick Tumour is removed either by Epispasticks, or Burning; or by the application of Arthritick Repercussives, mixed with Camphir, or Opium, or both.


Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Peppercat.



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