- Major entries:
- Juglans cinerea Linn. Butternut.
- Juglans regia Linn. English Walnut. Madeira Nut. Persian Walnut.
Juglans baccata Linn. Juglandeae. Walnut.
West Indies. The nuts are edible and furnish an oil. They are very rich in starch.
Eastern North America. The butternut was called by the Narragansett Indians wussoquat, and the oil from the nut was used for seasoning their aliments. The nuts were used by the Indians to thicken their pottage. The immature fruit is sometimes used as a pickle and is most excellent. The kernel of the ripe nut is esteemed by those who do not object to its strong and oily taste. The tree is occasionally grown as a shade tree and for its nuts. In 1813, a sample of butternut sugar was sent to the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture.
Juglans nigra Linn. Black Walnut.
A tree valued for its timber, common in the western states of northeast America. The kernel of the nut is sweet and less oily than the butternut but greatly inferior to the Madeira nut. It is eaten and was a prized food of the Indians.
This tree extends from Greece and Asia Minor over Lebanon and Persia to the Himalayas. It is abundant in Kashmir, Nepal and neighboring countries and is cultivated in Europe and elsewhere. It is referred to by Theophrastus under the name of karuon. According to Pliny, it was introduced into Italy from Persia, but it is mentioned as existing in Italy by Varro, who was born B. C. 116. In many parts of Spain, France, Italy and Germany, the nut forms an important article of food to the people, and in some parts of France considerable quantities of oil are expressed from the kernels to be used in cooking and as a drying oil in the arts. In Circassia, sugar is said to be made from the sap. There are many varieties; those of the province of Khosistan in Persia are much esteemed and are sent in great quantities to India. In Georgia, they are of a fine quality. In North China, an almost huskless variety occurs. In France, there is a variety called Titmouse walnut because the shell is so thin that birds, especially the titmouse, can break it and eat the kernel. In the United States, it is called English walnut and two varieties succeed well in Virginia. In western New York, it is occasionally seen in lawns.
Juglans rupestris Engelm.
Western North America. The small nuts are sweet and edible.
Juglans sieboldiana Maxim. Japanese Walnut.
Japan. The small nuts are of good flavor, borne in large clusters, a dozen or more in one bunch.