- Major entries:
- Lepidium latifolium Linn. Dittander. Poor Man's Pepper.
- Lepidium sativum Linn. Cress. Nasturtium.
Lepidium diffusum DC. Cruciferae. Dittander.
Louisiana. The plant is eatable as a water cress.
Lepidium draba Linn. Hoary Cress.
East Mediterranean countries. The plant is cooked and eaten in Cappadocia, and the seeds are substituted for pepper in seasoning.
A cress of Europe, north Africa, middle and north Asia. In Britain, this cress was much used as a pungent condiment before the various substances now employed for such purposes became cheap and hence the common name, poor man's pepper. It was sometimes called dittander, and under that name was cultivated in cottage gardens but is now almost entirely discarded as a culinary vegetable. Loudon says it has roots resembling horseradish, for which it may be used as a substitute, and the leaves are excellent as greens and for salads. Lightfoot mentions the use of the pungent leaves for salads, and Mueller says it is much used for some select sauces.
Lepidium oleraceum Forst. f. New Zealand Cress.
New Zealand. This plant is found growing abundantly on the seashores. It is a good antiscorbutic and was eagerly sought after by early voyagers as a remedy for scurvy. The natives call it eketera. It is now cultivated in Britain as a potherb.
Lepidium piscidium Forst. f. Fish Poison.
Pacific Islands. This is an extremely pungent cress eaten by seamen as a relish and antiscorbutic.
Orient. De Candolle believes this plant to be a native of Persia, whence it may have spread into the gardens of India, Syria, Greece, Egypt and even as far as Abyssinia. It is said by Xenophon, about 400 B. C., to have been eaten by the Persians before they became acquainted with bread. Pliny, in the first century, speaks of the nasturtium as growing in Arabia, of a remarkable size. Cress finds frequent mention in the Greek and Latin authors. This plant has been cultivated in England since 1548 and is mentioned by Gerarde who says, "Galen saith that the Cresses may be eaten with bread Velutiobsonium and so the Ancient Spartans usually did; and the low-countrie men many times doe, who commonly use to feed of Cresses with bread and butter. It is eaten with other sallade herbes, as Tarragon and Rocket; and for this cause it is chiefly sown." In 1806, McMahon mentions three varieties for American gardens. The leaves while young have a warm, pungent taste and are now eaten as a salad, either separately or mixed with lettuce or other salad plants. The curled varieties are used for garnishing. Burr describes five varieties, and four types are now under culture; the common, the curled, the broad-leaved and the golden. The synonomy of these various types is as below, it being premised that the modern varieties vary somewhat in degree only:
I. Common Cress.
Nasturtium hortense. Fuch. 362. 1542; Trag. 82. 1552; Pin. 221. 1561; Ger. 194. 1597; Dod. 711. 1616.
Gartenkress. Roezl. 188. 1550.
Nasturtium. Matth. 280. 1558; Lob. Obs. 107. 1576; Cam. Epit. 355. 1586; Matth. Op. 425. 1598; Chabr. 289. 1677.
Nasturtio. Pictorius Ed. Macer 75. 1581.
Nasturtium hortense commune. Bauh. Phytopin. 161. 1596.
Nasturtium hortense vulgatum. Baugh. Pin. 102. 1623.
Nasturtium vulgare. Baugh. J. 2:912. 1651.
Common Garden Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Vilm. 207. 1885.
Garden Cress. Townsend 1726.
Lepidium saticum. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763.
Common Cress. Stevenson 1785; Bryant 103. 1783; Miller's Diet. 1807.
Common Small-Leaved. Mawe 1778.
Cresson alenois commun. Vilm. 194. 1883.
II. Curled Cress.
Nasturtium hortense crispum. Bauh. Phytopin. 161. 1596; Pin. 104. 1623.
Nasturtium hortense. Linn. Ger. 194. 1597.
Nasturtium crispum augustifolium. Matth. Op. 426. 1598.
Nasturtium crispum. Bauhin, Joh. Bauh., J. 2:913. 1651.
Nasturtium hortense crispum latifolium. Bauh.Prod.44. 1671.
Nasturtium hortense crispum angustifolium. Bauh. 43. 1671.
Nasturtium crispum. Chabr. 289. 1677.
Curled Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Townsend 1726; Stevenson 34. 1765; Bryant 103. 1783; McMahon 1806; Mill. Diet. 1807.
Lepidium sativum crispum. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763.
Cresson frise. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Petit Diet. 1826.
Cresson alenois frise. Vilm. 195. 1883.
Curled, or Normandy, and Extra-Curled Dwarf. Vilm. 207. 1885.
III. Broad-Leaved Cress.
Nasturtium. Cam. Epit. 335. 1586.
Nasturtium hortense latifolium. Bauh. Phytopin 160. 1596; Pin. 103. 1623.
Nasturtium latifolium dioscorideum. Bauh., J. 2:913. 1651.
Nasturtium latifolium. Chabr. 289. 1677.
Broad-Leaved Garden Cress. Ray 825. 1686; Vilm. 207. 1885.
Broad-Leaved. Townsend 1726; Stevenson 34. 1765; Mawe 1778; McMahon 1806; Mill. Diet. 1807.
Lepidium latifolium. Linn. Sp. 899. 1763.
Cresson a larges feuilles. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Petit 1826.
Cresson alenois a large feuitte. Vilm. 195. 1893.
IV. Golden Cress.
Cresson dore. Petit 1826; Noisette 1829.
Golden. Hort. Trans. 6:583. 1826; Burr 343. 1863; Vilm. 208. 1885.
Cresson alenois dore. Vilm. 195. 1883.
It appears as if the types of the modern varieties have not changed through culture, as three are quite ancient, and the fourth is but an ordinary variation of a pale yellowish-green color. Curled cress seems to have been first observed by J. Bauhin, who furnished his brother, C. Bauhin, with seed preceding 1596.