Lupinus albus Linn. Leguminosae. Field Lupine. Wolf-Bean.
Mediterranean region. This plant has been cultivated since the days of the ancient Egyptians. It was cultivated by the Romans as a legume but does not seem to have entered the Rhine regions until the sixteenth century. Theophrastus speaks of lupine in his History of Plants and it is also mentioned by Cato, Columella and Pliny. It is now extensively cultivated in Sicily, Italy and some other countries as a plant for green manuring and for the seeds, which, when boiled to remove their bitterness, are still an article of food in some regions. In 1854, seeds were distributed from the United States Patent Office.
Lupinus hirsutus Linn. Blue Lupine.
Mediterranean regions. This plant was cultivated by the Greeks under the name thermos and serves now as food for the poorer classes of people, as it did the Cynics. The Mainots, at the present day, bake bread from the seeds. It now grows wild throughout the whole of the Mediterranean region from Portugal and Algiers to the Greek islands and Constantinople.
Lupinus littoralis Dougl.
Northwest America. The tough, branching roots are used by the Columbia River Indians as winter food, being dried. When eaten they are roasted and become farinaceous. Tytler says these are the licorice spoken of by Lewis and Clarke. The native name is comnuchtan.
Lupinus luteus Linn. Yellow Lupine.
Mediterranean region. The seeds of this plant constitute a nutritious article of food for man. It is cultivated in Italy.
Lupinus perennis Linn. Wild Lupine.
Eastern North America. Unger says its bitter seeds are eaten from Canada to Florida.
Lupinus termis Forsk.
East Mediterranean countries. This plant is cultivated in Italy and in Egypt for its seeds, which are cooked in salt water and shelled. The peduncles, after being pickled, are eaten without cooking.
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World, 1919, was edited by U. P. Hedrick.