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Cinnamomum Saigonicum. U. S. ; Cinnamomum zeylanicum. U. S. (Br.)

Cinnamomum Saigonicum. U. S.

Saigon cinnamon. Cinnam. Saigon.

Preparations: Oil of Cinnamon

"The dried bark of an undetermined species of Cinnamomum (Fam. Lauraceae)." U. S.

Annam cinnamon, China cinnamon. God's cinnamon; Cannelle de Saigon, Fr.; Saigonzimmt, G.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum. U. S. (Br.)

Ceylon cinnamon. Cinnam. Zeylan.

"The dried bark of cultivated trees of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyne (Fam. Lauraceae), without the presence or admixture of more than 3 per cent. of the outer bark or other foreign matter." U. S. "Cinnamon Bark is the dried inner bark of shoots from the truncated stocks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Breyn. Obtained from cultivated trees. Imported from Ceylon, and distinguished in commerce as Ceylon cinnamon." Br.

Cinnamomi Cortex, Br.; Cinnamomum, U. S. 1880; Cinnamon Bark; Cortex Cinnamomi Zeylanici; Cinnamomum Acutum, s. Verum; Cannelle de Ceylan, Fr. Cod.; Cannelle, Fr.; Brauner Kaneel, Zeylonzimmt, Zimmt, G.; Cannella, It.; Canela, Sp.; Kurundu, Cingalese; Karua puttay, Tamil.

Both cinnamomum and cassia were terms employed by the ancients, but whether exactly as now understood it is impossible to determine. The term cassia, or cassia lignea, has been generally used in modern times to designate the commoner barks of Cinnamomum Cassia (Nees) Blume. The barks sold as cinnamon and cassia in different parts of the world are derived from various species of Cinnamomum.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a tree about 20 or 30 feet high, covered with a thick, scabrous bark. The branches are numerous, strong, horizontal, and declining, and the young shoots are beautifully speckled with dark green and light orange colors. The leaves are petiolate, opposite for the most part, coriaceous, entire, ovate or ovate-oblong, obtusely pointed, and three-nerved, with the lateral nerves vanishing as they approach the point. There are also two less obvious nerves, one on each side arising from the base, proceeding towards the border of the leaf, and then quickly vanishing. In one variety the leaves are very broad and somewhat cordate. When mature, they are of a shining green upon their upper surface, and lighter-colored beneath. The flowers are small, white, and arranged in axillary and terminal panicles. The fruit is an oval berry, which adheres like the acorn to the receptacle, is larger than the black currant, and when ripe has a bluish-brown surface, diversified with numerous white spots. The tree emits no odor perceptible at any distance. The bark of the root has the odor of cinnamon with the pungency of camphor, and yields this principle upon distillation. The leaves have a spicy odor when rubbed, and a hot taste. A volatile oil has been distilled from them. The petiole has the flavor of cinnamon. It is a singular fact that the odor of the flowers is to most persons disagreeable, being compared by some to the scent exhaled from newly-sawed bones. The fruit has a terebinthinate odor when opened, and a taste in some degree like that of juniper berries. A fatty substance, called cinnamon-suet, is obtained from it when ripe, by bruising it and then boiling it in water, and removing the oleaginous matter which rises to the surface, and concretes upon cooling. It is the prepared bark that constitutes the genuine cinnamon.

This species is a native of Ceylon, where it has long been cultivated. It is said also to be a native of the Malabar Coast, and has at various periods been introduced into Java, the Isle of France, Bourbon, the Cape Verds, Brazil, Cayenne, several of the West India islands, and Egypt, and in some of these places is at this time highly productive, especially in Cayenne, where the plant was flourishing so early as 1755. It is exceedingly influenced, as regards the aromatic character of its bark, by the circumstances of soil, climate, and mode of culture. Thus, we are told by Marshall that in Ceylon, beyond the limits of Negombo and Matura, in the western and southern parts of the island, the bark is never of good quality, being greatly deficient in the aromatic flavor of the cinnamon, and that even within these limits it is of unequal value, from the various influences of exposure, soil, shade, and other circumstances. Cinnamon closely resembling Ceylon cinnamon is said to have been sent to Europe from Brazil.

Cassia Cinnamon which was formerly official is the product of Cinnamomum Cassia (Nees) Blume, a tree resembling C. Zeylanicum but distinguished by the hairiness of the young twigs, petioles and under surfaces of the leaves. The tree is indigenous to and cultivated in southern China, Annam and Cochin-China. It is also cultivated in Sumatra, Ceylon, Japan, Mexico and South America. The bark is known in commerce as China or Canton Cassia and the commonest or cheapest grade as "Cassia lignea."

Besides the two species above described, others have been thought to contribute to the cinnamon and cassia of commerce. In 1839 (Madras Journ. Lit. and Sci., No. 22), Wight stated that in his belief cinnamon was derived from 12 to 18 specifically distinct trees. C. inners, Reinw., is distinguished from C. zeylanicum by the nervation of its leaves, which are also paler and thinner than those of the official plant, of which, however, it is probably only a variety.

It yields the so-called wild cinnamon of Japan. C. obtusifolium Nees, growing in Ceylon, Java, and on the mainland of India, is said to have been the chief source of the drug known formerly by the name of Folia Malabathri and consisting of the leaves of different species of Cinnamomum mixed together. C. Culilawan Blume of the Moluccas yields the aromatic bark called culilawan, noticed in Part II of this work; and similar barks are obtained from C. Sintoc of Java. Massoy bark, from which an aromatic volatile oil is obtained called oil of massoy, is the product of Sassafras Goesianum Leijom. In the mountains of Eastern Bengal, at a height of 1000 to 4000 feet, flourish C. obtusifolium Nees, C. pauciflorum Nees, and C. Tamala Nees et Ebern, and these, with other unknown species, afford quantities of bark which are shipped from Calcutta, Java, Timor, etc., to Europe under the name of wild cassia. The bark of the C. pedatinervium Meissn, a tree indigenous to Fiji, yields nearly one per cent. of a white aromatic volatile oil, with a pungent spicy taste. For constitution, etc., see Proc. Chem. Soc., xix. These barks are mostly highly aromatic, resembling cinnamon more or less closely in flavor, and are distinguished by yielding to cold water an abundant mucilage. Holmes described the bark of C. pedativum Meis., and concludes that it might be of value as a source of safrol and linalool in P. J., 1904, p. 892.

Cassia Buds.—This spice consists of the calyx of Cinnamomum Cassia (Nees) Blume, surrounding the young ovary, and, as stated by Martius, on the authority of the elder Nees, about one-quarter of the normal size. It is produced in China; and Reeves states that great quantities of it are brought to Canton from the province which affords cassia. Cassia buds have some resemblance to cloves, and are compared to small nails with round heads. The enclosed ovary is sometimes removed, and they are then cup-shaped at top. They have a brown color, with the flavor of cinnamon, and yield an essential oil upon distillation. They may be used for the same purposes as the bark.

Culture, Collection, Commerce, etc.—In Ceylon, cinnamon bark was originally collected exclusively from the tree in a wild state; but the Dutch introduced the practice of cultivating it, which has been continued since the British came into possession of the island. The principal cinnamon gardens are in the vicinity of Colombo, but the plant is grown from the sea-level up to a considerable elevation, giving the finest product, however, on the sandy soil of the coast line. The seeds are planted in a prepared soil at certain distances, and, as four or five are placed in a spot, the plants usually grow in clusters like the hazel-bush. In favorable situations they attain the height of five or six feet in six or seven years; and a healthy bush will then afford two or three shoots fit for peeling, and every second year afterwards from four to seven shoots in a good soil. The cinnamon harvest commences in May and continues until late in October. The first object is to select shoots proper for decortication, and those are seldom cut which are less than half an inch or more than two or three inches in diameter. Before decortication these shoots are trimmed up, and the small pieces, when dried, constitute cinnamon chips. The bark is divided by longitudinal incisions, of which two are made in the smaller shoots, several in the larger, and is then removed in strips by means of a suitable instrument. The pieces are next collected in bundles, and allowed to remain in this state for a short time, so as to undergo a degree of fermentation, which facilitates the separation of the epidermis. This, with the green matter beneath it, is removed by placing the strip of bark upon a convex piece of wood and scraping its external surface with a curved knife. The bark now dries and contracts, assuming the appearance of a quill. The peeler introduces the smaller tubes into the larger, and connects them also endwise, thus forming a congeries of quills which is about forty inches long. When sufficiently dry, these cylinders are collected into bundles weighing about, thirty pounds and bound together by pieces of split bamboo. The commerce in Ceylon cinnamon was formerly monopolized by the East India Company; but the cultivation is now unrestricted, and the bark may be freely exported upon the payment of a fixed duty. It is assorted in the island into three qualities, distinguished by the designations of first, second, and third. The inferior kinds, which are of insufficient value to pay the duty, are used for preparing oil of cinnamon.

The importations of cassia buds into the United States in 1916 amounted to 197,056 pounds, and of cassia and cassia leaves to 7,487,156 pounds, valued at $493,161. Immense quantities of cinnamon barks are exported from China, the finest of which is little inferior to that of Ceylon, though the mass of it is much coarser. It passes in commerce under the name of cassia, was formerly official, and is said by Reeves to be brought to Canton from the province of Kwangse, where the tree producing it grows very abundantly. It is, indeed, asserted that true cinnamon of very fine grade occurs in China, although it never enters foreign commerce, because of the high price which it commands at home. (P. J., xxi, 1890.) These fine cinnamons are said to be produced in the mountainous district of Annam, or Cochin-China. Cinnamon of good quality is said to be collected in Java, and considerable quantities of inferior quality have been thrown into commerce, as cassia lignea, from the Malabar Coast. Manila and the Isle of France are also mentioned as sources whence this drug is supplied. Little, however, reaches the United States from these places. The island of Martinique, Cayenne, and several of the West India islands yield to commerce considerable quantities of cinnamon of various qualities. That of Cayenne is of two kinds, one of which closely resembles, though it does not quite equal, the aroma of Ceylon, the other resembles the Chinese. The former is supposed to be derived from plants propagated from a Ceylonese stock, the latter from plants which have sprung from a tree introduced from Sumatra. By far the greater proportion of cinnamon brought to this country is imported from China. It is entered as cassia and Saigon cassia at the custom house.

From what source the ancients derived their cinnamon and cassia is not certainly known. Neither the plants nor their localities, as described by Dioscorides, Pliny, and Theophrastus, correspond precisely with our present knowledge; but in this respect much allowance must be made for the inaccurate geography of the ancients. It is probable that the Arabian navigators at a very early period conveyed this spice within the limits of the Phenician and Uredan and subsequently of Roman commerce.

Properties.—Saigon cinnamon takes its name from Saigon, the capital of French Cochin China. It is a thick cassia bark, which has come into European commerce, and was recognized for the first time by the U. S. P., 1890. It is officially described as "in quills attaining a length of 30 cm., and. from 3 to 30 mm. in diameter; the bark from 0.5 to 3 mm. in thickness; outer surface light brown to dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of foliaceous lichens and numerous bud-scars; finely wrinkled, especially the bark of younger twig's, otherwise more or less rough from corky patches surrounding the lenticels; inner surface reddish-brown to dark brown, granular, and slightly striate; fracture short; inner bark porous, owing to the presence of large oil cells and mucilage cells, and separated by a continuous layer of stone cells from the outer bark; odor aromatic; taste sweetish, aromatic and pungent. Under the microscope, sections of the older bark of Saigon Cinnamon show a thin layer of more or less lignified cork cells; a narrow layer of starch-bearing parenchyma with scattered stone cells; a nearly continuous zone, several layers wide, of stone cells, among which are small groups of bast-fibers with thickened and slightly lignified walls; a wide inner bark with medullary rays 1 to 3 cells in width, isolated bast-fibers, mucilage cells, oil cells and parenchyma, the cells of the latter either filled with starch grains or containing very small rap hides of calcium oxalate; the lumina of parenchyma cells, stone cells and bast-fibers frequently filled with an amorphous reddish-brown substance, which is for the most part insoluble in the ordinary reagents. In the bark of young twigs there is an epidermal layer with a thick yellowish cuticle, fewer stone cells in the zone associated with bast-fibers, and the inner bark is narrower and with fewer secretion cells than in the older bark. The powder is yellowish- or reddish-brown; starch grains numerous, single or compound, the individual grains being somewhat ellipsoidal or polygonal and from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter; fragments, with colorless stone cells, rather prominent. the cells being very irregular in shape and the lumina containing either air or a reddish-brown amorphous substance; bast-fibers from 0.3 to 1.5 mm. in length and usually in groups of from 2 to 20 with very thick and scarcely lignified walls; numerous cellular, reddish-brown fragments in which the oil cells are not readily distinguishable. Saigon Cinnamon yields not less than 2 per cent. of volatile extractive, soluble in ether. Saigon Cinnamon yields not more than 6 per cent. of ash. The amount of ash insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid does not exceed 2 per cent. of the weight of Saigon Cinnamon taken." U.S.

"In closely rolled quills, each about nine millimetres in diameter, and containing numerous smaller quills or channelled pieces. Dull, pale yellowish-brown, darker on the inner surface; thin, brittle and splintery; entirely free from cork; marked with small scars or holes and with faint, shining, wavy longitudinal lines. The powdered Bark exhibits abundant parenchymatous tissue with brown cell-walls, isolated bast-fibers not more than 30 microns in diameter, small simple or compound starch grains and thick-walled sclerenchymatous cells, but no cork or fragments of wood. Fragrant odor; taste warm, sweet, and aromatic. Ash not more than 5 per cent." Br.

The odor of this cinnamon is fragrant, the taste is highly aromatic, markedly that of cinnamon, and, in the specimens that we have seen, only slightly astringent. It also occurs in commerce much broken, in which state it commands a somewhat smaller price than in quills. The Saigon buds also are brought into the port of New York. The quality of Saigon cassia, as it is commonly termed in trade journals, is distinctly superior to that of other cassias, and the price which it commands much higher. It is obtained from an undetermined species of Cinnamomum but is sometimes ascribed to Cinnamomum Loureirii of Nees, the Laurus Cinnamomum of Loureiro, a tree which grows in Cochin-China and Japan. According to Siebold, the bark of the large branches is of inferior quality and is rejected; that from the smallest branches resembles the Ceylon cinnamon in thickness, but has a very pungent taste and odor, and is little esteemed, while the intermediate branches yield an excellent bark, about 2 mm. in thickness, which is even more highly valued than the cinnamon of Ceylon, and yields a sweeter and less pungent oil. It yields about 2 per cent. of a volatile oil, the oil of Nikkei, having an odor resembling that of cinnamon and consisting of citral, having a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of 0.9005, and containing about 27 per cent. of aldehyde, chiefly citral.

Ceylon cinnamon occurs "in closely rolled double quills, composed of from 7 to 12 thin layers of separate pieces of bark, from 30 to 50 cm. in length and from 8 to 13 mm. in diameter; the bark attaining a thickness of 1 mm.; outer surface pale yellowish-brown, smooth, longitudinally striate with narrow yellowish groups of bast-fibers, and showing circular or irregular brownish patches, occasionally with perforations marking the nodes; inner surface light brown, with faint, longitudinal striations; fracture short with projecting bast-fibers; odor agreeably aromatic; taste sweetish and warmly aromatic. Under the microscope, sections of Ceylon Cinnamon usually show no cork but an almost continuous outer layer of stone cells, among which are small groups of bast-fibers resembling those found in Saigon Cinnamon; in the inner bark occur numerous bast-fibers singly or in small groups, medullary rays 1 to 2 cells in width, usually with raphides of calcium oxalate; parenchyma with either reddish-brown contents or more or less filled with starch grains; scattered throughout the parenchyma occur oil secretion cells and mucilage cells. The powder is light brown or yellowish-brown; starch grains numerous, varying from spherical to polygonal, from 0.003 to 0.02 mm. in diameter, frequently in small aggregates; bast-fibers from 0.3 to 0.8 mm. in length, usually single, spindle-shaped, with attenuated ends, the walls being very thick and but slightly lignified; colorless stone cells resembling those of Saigon Cinnamon; numerous cellular fragments with yellowish-brown walls or contents; cork cells few or none; calcium oxalate in raphides, from 0.005 to 0.008 mm. in length. Ceylon Cinnamon yields not less than 0.5 per cent. of volatile extractive, soluble in ether. (See Part III, Test No. 12.) Ceylon Cinnamon yields not more than 6 per cent. of ash. The amount of ash insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid does not exceed 2 per cent. of the weight of Ceylon Cinnamon taken." U. S.

When distilled Ceylon Cinnamon affords but a small quantity of essential oil, which, however, has an exceedingly grateful flavor. It is brought to this country from England, but it is costly. The inferior sorts are browner, thicker, less splintery, and of a less agreeable flavor, and are little if at all superior to the best Chinese. The finer variety of Cayenne cinnamon approaches in character that A. Love described, but is paler and in thicker pieces, being usually collected from older branches. That which is gathered very young is scarcely distinguishable from the cinnamon of Ceylon.

Chinese cinnamon, or Cassia (Cinnamomum Cassia, Cassia Cinnamon, U. S., 1890), occurs in quills, usually single, sometimes double, very rarely more than double, from 30 to 60 cm. long, 2 to 5 cm. wide, and 0.2 to 3 man. thick. In some instances the bark is rolled very much upon itself, in others is not even completely quilled, forming segments more or less extensive of a hollow cylinder. It is of a redder or darker color than the finest Ceylon cinnamon, thicker, rougher, denser, and breaks with a shorter fracture. It has a stronger, more pungent and astringent but less sweet and grateful taste, and though of a similar odor, is less agreeably fragrant. It is the kind almost universally kept in our shops. Of a similar character is the cinnamon imported directly from various parts of the East Indies. But under the name of cassia have also been brought to us very inferior kinds of cinnamon, collected from the trunks or large branches of the trees, or injured by want of care in keeping, or perhaps derived from inferior species. It is said that cinnamon from which the oil has been distilled is sometimes fraudulently mixed with the genuine. These inferior kinds are detected, independently of their greater thickness and coarseness of fracture, by their deficiency in the peculiar sensible properties of the spice. Chinese cinnamon is "in quills of varying length and about 1 mm. or more in thickness; nearly deprived of the corky layer; yellowish-brown; outer surface somewhat rough; fracture nearly smooth; odor fragrant; taste sweet, and warmly aromatic." U. S. 1890. Cassia is no longer official in the U. S. P., it having been dropped at the 8th Revision.

Powdered cinnamon is often grossly adulterated with sugar, ground walnut shells, galanga rhizome and various other substances. Galanga, according to Schmitz-Dumont, may be detected by the presence of small club-shaped, rod-shaped, partly bent, microscopic pieces of resinotannol. (Zeit. oeff. Chem., 1903, No. 2.) Powdered cassia buds are frequently added to the inferior cinnamon powders, but can hardly be looked upon as an adulterant, as they contain a larger proportion of volatile oil than the lower grades of cinnamon.

The Pharmacographia gives the following tests for distinguishing powdered cassia from powdered cinnamon, and for recognizing the inferior varieties of cassia. Make a decoction of powdered cinnamon of known genuineness, and one of similar strength of the suspected powder; when cool and strained, test a fluidounce of each with one or two drops of tincture of iodine. A decoction of cinnamon is but little affected, but in that of cassia a deep blue-black tint is immediately produced. The cheap kinds of cassia known as cassia vera may be distinguished from the more valuable Chinese cassia as well as from cinnamon by their richness in mucilage; this can be extracted by cold water; it is a thick glairy liquid, giving dense ropy precipitates with corrosive sublimate or neutral lead acetate, but not with alcohol.

Microscopic Structure.—Ceylon cinnamon usually consists simply of the inner bark, the outer coatings having been stripped off during its preparation for market. Three layers are distinguishable in the liber. " 1. The external surface, which is composed of one to three rows of large thick-walled cells, forming a coherent ring; it is only interrupted by bundles of bast fibres, which are obvious even to the unaided eye. 2. The middle layer is built up of about 10 rows of parenchymatous thin-walled cells, interrupted by much larger cells containing deposits of mucilage, while other cells not larger than those of the parenchyma itself are filled with essential oil. 3. The innermost layer exhibits the same thin-walled but smaller cells, yet intersected by narrow somewhat darker medullary rays, and likewise interrupted by cells containing either mucilage or essential oil, instead of bundles of bast fibres. Fibres mostly isolated are scattered through the two inner layers, the parenchyma of which abounds in small starch granules accompanied by tannic and on a longitudinal section the length of the liber fibres becomes more evident, as well as the oil-cells and mucilage cells." (Pharmacographia.)

The coarser cassia bark, or cassia lignea, usually has some of the external or corky layer adherent to it, and always the parenchymatous mesophleum or middle bark, but the inner bark constitutes the chief mass. Isolated bast fibers and thick-walled stone cells are scattered even through the outer layers of a transverse section. In the middle zone they are numerous, but do not form a coherent sclerenchymatous ring as in Ceylon cinnamon. The innermost part of the bast shares the structural character of cinnamon, with differences due to age, as, for instance, the greater development of the medullary rays. Oil cells and mucilage cells are likewise distributed among the parenchyma of the former. The finest cassia or Chinese cinnamon has the three layers described in Ceylon cinnamon, but is distinguished by the adherent outer parenchymatous and suberous layer. For an excellent description of the microscopical structure of the commercial cinnamon see Win-ton and Moeller, "The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods" Spaeth gives the microscopical characteristics of the several kinds of cinnamon, discusses the adulterants of powdered cinnamon and the means of detection in Ph. Centralh., 1908, pp. 724, 729. Rosenthaler and Reis give an excellent pharmacognostical study of Seychelles Cinnamon in Ber. d. pharm. Gesellsch., Berl., 1909, p. 490.

Chemical Composition.—According to the analysis of Vauquelin, cinnamon contains a peculiar volatile oil, tannin, mucilage, a coloring matter, an acid, and lignin. The tannin is of the variety which yields a greenish-black precipitate with the salts of iron. Thos. R. Thornton (A. J. P., 1895, 400) has examined the tannin of C. Cassia. He found it to amount to about 3.90 per cent., as an average of three different determinations on different samples. He found it impossible to extract the tannin by any one of several methods tried, and concludes that it either has the phlobophene (anhydride) character as it exists in the drug or acquires such character when brought into eon-tact with water. Jas. A. Ferguson (1887), in the laboratory of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, determined the ash of several samples of Ceylon cinnamon, finding an average of 4 per cent., while in powdered cassia cinnamon he found 2.8 and 2.5 per cent. (A. J. P., 1887, 278, 279.) The oil obtained from the Cayenne cinnamon was found to be more biting than that from the Ceylon. Bucholz found in 100 parts of cassia lignea 0.8 of volatile oil, 4.0 of resin; 14.6 of gummy extractive (probably including tannin), 64.3 of lignin and bassorin, and 16.3 of water, including loss.

This aromatic yields its virtues wholly to alcohol, and less readily to water. At the temperature of boiling alcohol very little of the oil rises, and an extract prepared from the tincture retains, therefore, the aromatic properties. For an account of the volatile oil, see Oleum Cinnamomi.

Uses.—Cinnamon is among the most grateful and efficient of -the aromatics. It is warm and cordial to the stomach, carminative, distinctly astringent, and, like most other substances of this class, more powerful as a local than as a general stimulant. It is seldom prescribed alone, though, when given in powder or infusion, it will sometimes allay nausea, check vomiting, and relieve flatulence. It is chiefly used as an adjuvant, and enters into a great number of official preparations. It is often employed in diarrhea, in connection with chalk and astringents.

Dose, of powder, ten to twenty grains (0.65 tol.3Gm.).

Preparation: Compound Powder of Catechu

Off. Prep.—Ceylon cinnamon.—Aqua Cinnamomi, Br.; Pulvis Cinnamomi Compositus, Br.; Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, Br.; Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, Br.; Tinctura Cinnamomi, Br.; Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, Br.

Off. Prep.—Saigon cinnamon.—Pulvis Aromaticus, U. S.; Fluidextractum Aromaticum (from Aromatic Powder), U. S.; Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, U. S.; Tinctura Cinnamomi, U. S.; Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, U. S.; Cordiale Rubi Fructus, N. F.; Elixir Rubi Compositum, N. F.; Elixir Taraxaci Composita (from Tincture), N. F.; Pulvis Aromaticus Rubefaciens, N. F.; Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N. F.; Syrupus Cinnamomi, N. F.; Tincture Aromatica, N. F.; Vinum Aurantii Compositum, N. F.


The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 1918, was edited by Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood and others.



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