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Fluid Extracts of the New Pharmacopoeia. Part IV.

Preparations:

BY ALONZO ROBBINS.

Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March 20.

Related entries: Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4

EXTRACTUM SENEGAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Senega.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of two parts of alcohol and one part of water, and adds two per cent. of water of ammonia to the fluid extract. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended diluted alcohol, with two per cent. of water of ammonia in the first one hundred parts of menstruum; a sample thus prepared in January, 1880, is now entirely without deposit, but there is on the top of the preparation a layer of mucilaginous matter, nearly a quarter of an inch deep in a four-ounce bottle, otherwise the fluid extract is in very good condition. The stronger officinal menstruum is probably the best for this preparation, and the addition of the water of ammonia to the finished fluid extract, instead of putting it into the menstruum, is a decided improvement, although perhaps an insufficient quantity is employed, five per cent. would more surely accomplish the object of its use.

EXTRACTUM SENNAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Senna.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, four fluidounces of glycerin, and four fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding four fluidounces of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs a mixture of three parts of alcohol and four parts of water; this, as mentioned, when considering fluid extract of ergot, is only a very little weaker than diluted alcohol. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended diluted alcohol as the menstruum; a sample thus prepared in January, 1880, now contains only a very slight precipitate, but there is a considerable deposit of a black substance on the sides of the bottle, otherwise the fluid extract is in good condition; as the menstruum used in the preparation of this sample, was so near the strength of the officinal, it is highly probable that the product of that menstruum would not keep any better. With the object of ascertaining if a weaker alcohol would not answer the purpose, a number of experiments were made with a menstruum composed of one part of alcohol and two parts of water alone, and with various percentages of glycerin; while these menstruums exhausted the senna readily, the fluid extracts prepared with them precipitated very much, the glycerin not having the slightest effect in preventing this result; glycerin does, however, appear to, cause all the separated matter to collect on the bottom of the bottle, and not adhere to the sides. Therefore it seems probable that diluted alcohol, with five or ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts, would be the best menstruum for this preparation.

EXTRACTUM SERPENTARIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Serpentaria.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed alcohol, the present Pharmacopoeia directs three parts of alcohol and one part of water, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum; a sample thus prepared in November, 1879, now contains a slight granular precipitate and a very thin coating of similar granules on the sides of the bottle; in all other respects the fluid extract appears to be unchanged.

EXTRACTUM SPIGELIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Spigelia.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, four fluidounces of glycerin, and four fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding four fluidounces of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum; a sample thus prepared in October, 1879, now contains only a very slight precipitate and has undergone no apparent change whatever.

EXTRACTUM STILLINGIAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Stillingia.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of twelve fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and one fluidounce of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended three parts of alcohol and one part of water, as the menstruum; a sample thus prepared in December, 1879, now contains only a moderate precipitate, and in every other respect is in most excellent condition; another sample made at the same time as the first, with diluted alcohol, has likewise only a moderate precipitate, but there is on the sides of the bottle, above the fluid extract, a considerable coating of yellowish. substance; in other respects this sample is in moderately good condition,. but the stronger menstruum is evidently the best for this preparation.

EXTRACTUM STRAMONII FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Stramonium.—This is one of the eleven fluid extracts added to the list by the Committee of Revision; it is directed to be made from the powdered stramonium seed with a menstruum. composed of three parts of alcohol and one part of water; the product no doubt well represents the drug, but having this preparation, the officinal tincture of stramonium appears to be entirely superfluous, and if the same menstruum bad been directed, the solid extract might have been very conveniently obtained from the fluid.

EXTRACTUM TARAXACI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Taraxacum.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs two parts of alcohol and three parts of water, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum, with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts. A sample thus prepared in January, 1880, now contains only a very slight precipitate, and is in all other respects in most excellent condition; two other samples were recently prepared, one the same as the above, and the other with the officinal menstruum; the first has undergone no change whatever, the second contains a slight flocculent precipitate, but if no further change occurs it will be evident that glycerin serves no useful purpose in this preparation.

EXTRACTUM TRITICI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Triticum.—For this newly-introduced preparation the Pharmacopoeia directs one hundred grammes of finely-cut triticum, to be percolated with boiling water until it is exhausted; the percolate is to be evaporated to eighty cubic centimeters, to which is to be added twenty cubic centimeters of alcohol, and then after being set aside for forty-eight hours, it is to be filtered, and to the filtrate is added enough of a mixture of four parts of water and one part of alcohol to make the fluid extract measure one hundred cubic centimeters. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended. the following process: add to one hundred parts of triticum three hundred parts of boiling water, and digest in a covered vessel for five hours; then strain off the infusion, pack the triticum in a percolator, and add, first the infusion and then boiling water, until the triticum is exhausted; evaporate the percolate to eighty-five parts, and when cool, add fifteen parts of alcohol; a sample thus made in January, 1880, now contains only a moderate precipitate, and appears to have undergone no change whatever. Another sample, containing no alcohol, was prepared at the same time as the first, by adding thirty parts of glycerin to the percolate and evaporating the whole to one hundred parts; this now contains about five times as much precipitated matter as the other sample.

EXTRACTUM UVAE URSI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Uva Ursi.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed a menstruum composed of eight fluidounces of alcohol, three fluidounces of glycerin, and five fluidounces of water, finishing the percolation with diluted alcohol, and adding one fluidounce of glycerin to the dilute percolate before evaporation. The present Pharmacopoeia directs diluted alcohol, with ten per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts; the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended a menstruum composed of one part of alcohol and two parts of water, with twenty per cent. of glycerin in the first one hundred parts; a sample thus prepared in November, 1879, now contains only a moderate precipitate, and is in every other respect in good condition; as this sample has kept so well, the use of the stronger officinal menstruum appears to be unnecessary.

EXTRACTUM VALERIANAE FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Valerian.—For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed stronger alcohol. The present Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of two parts of alcohol and one part of water, and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same; a sample thus prepared in August, 1879, is now in good condition, containing only a small precipitate and a very slight deposit of separated matter on the sides of the bottle above the fluid extract.

The present officinal menstruum has been thoroughly tried, and the product proved to be, in many respects, superior to the product of that formerly officinal.

EXTRACTUM VERATRI VIRIDIS FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Veratrum Viride. —For this preparation the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directed stronger alcohol; the present Pharmacopoeia directs alcohol and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy recommended the same menstruum; a sample thus prepared in December, 1879, now contains only a very slight precipitate, and appears to have undergone no change whatever.

Having this fluid extract, it seems superfluous to have also an officinal tincture of half its strength.

EXTRACTUM VIBURNI FLUIDUM.—Fluid Extract of Viburnum.—This newly-introduced fluid extract is one of the eleven added to the list by the Committee of Revision. The Pharmacopoeia directs a menstruum composed of two parts of alcohol and one part of water; a sample prepared in August, 1880, with diluted alcohol, now contains a considerable deposit and a thin coating on the sides of the bottle, but the fluid extract is still of a deep red color, and transparent in thin layers; the stronger officinal menstruum is Do doubt the best for this preparation.

Cont'd on next page.


The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 55, 1883, was edited by John M. Maisch.



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