An Historical Sketch of the Eclectic Medical College, 1845-1911.

(The alpha and omega of the Eclectic Movement, lasting from 1845 to 1939, this is Felter's "biography" of the Mother School, as of 1912, when it had already graduated 4,000 physicians and was the largest medical school in the midwest. --Michael Moore.)

The following article was prepared, by request, for publication in the "Skull," the first annual publication of the student-body of the Eclectic Medical College, 1911. The frequent demand for a brief historic sketch of the college on part of graduates is the reason for reproducing it herein, for in this way it can come into the hands of a greater number who may desire the data briefly contained in the article.— Ed. Gleaner.

Eclectic Medical Institute, Title page. Wooster Beach. T. V. Morrow. I. G. Jones. R. S. Newton. Storm Rosa. Z. Freeman. John King. E. Freeman. John M. Scudder. A. J. Howe. F. J. Locke. C. H. Cleaveland. Eclectic Medical Institute, 1846. Eclectic Medical Institute, 1870. Eclectic Medical College. Erected in 1910.

In the closing year of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, there loomed up conspicuously, in the City of New York, a man whose purpose in life was to reform and better existing forms of medical practice. So well did he succeed that he is now revered as the pathfinder and founder of American Eclecticism in Medicine. Wooster Beach was born in Connecticut. He read Medicine in an unorthodox fashion by placing himself under the instruction of a successful but unlicensed country doctor living in a secluded part of the State of New Jersey. From this preceptor he acquired uncommon facts concerning treatment, and then, going to the metropolis, became regularly educated in Medicine in one of the great medical universities and obtained his parchment.

The regular course was taken for two purposes: to allow him the right to practice unmolested, and, as he declared, that he might the more clearly "detect errors of the modern practice." Armed with the certificate of right to practice and of good moral character, he set out to follow his chosen art, but not in the regular way. He leaned strongly toward the use of vegetable medicines as against what were then termed mineral medicines. In order to pursue his calling and also to spread abroad his views and practice, he opened a clinical school known as the United States Infirmary (1827). Previous to this he had privately instructed pupils at his home as early as 1825. In 1829 this school was enlarged and denominated the !Reformed Medical Academy. The next year it bore the more pretentious title of Reformed Medical College of the City of New York.

From this school have sprung indirectly all of the Eclectic Medical Colleges of the United States. Out from this institution went Doctors John J. Steele (who soon proved defective), Thomas Vaughan Morrow, and Ichabod Gibson Jones, to do missionary work, for at a meeting of the first National Medical Society organized in this country—The Reformed Medical Society of the United States (New York City, 1829. Dr. Wooster Beach was its President.—Wilder's Hist. of Med., p. 481.)—a resolution had been passed, "That this Society deem it expedient to establish an additional school in some town on the Ohio River, or some of its navigable tributaries, in order that people of the West may avail themselves of the advantages resulting from a scientific knowledge of Botanic Medicine."

An offer was made the Society to establish the proposed school in the then young and aspiring village of Worthington, Ohio. A strong effort was being made to constitute that town the Capital City of Ohio, but its near neighbor Columbus won out. In Worthington there had been established in 1808 a literary and scientific school known as the Worthington Academy. This was successfully conducted until 1819, when a new charter was granted it, with title Worthington College. One of Dr. Beach's appeals (for the Society) for a college site having reached Worthington College, the trustees, at the instance of Colonel James Kilbourne, offered the protection of the charter and the use of the college building for the proposed "Medical School in the West."

The train of emigration was rapidly moving westward in 1830; prospects for expansion were bright, and the offer was thankfully accepted. Doctor Steele came on to examine the place and approved of it. The Reformed Medical College of Ohio, better known as the Medical Department of Worthington College, was instituted, and Doctor Steele was made President. The latter proved wanting and was asked to vacate, when a stalwart young Kentuckian, (Dr. Thomas Vaughan Morrow.) full of vigor, resource, and ability, and fresh from the New York Institution, was installed at the head of the venture.

Under his presidency the school grew rapidly and proved immensely successful for a few years, when it was killed by the defection of some of its men and the machinations of its enemies of the regular school. That which has wrecked so many medical colleges, of whatever creed—jealousy—and particularly a "resurrection war," proved the fatal strokes to this new and unprotected school. The institution was closed and subsequently moved to Cincinnati, where it was to struggle for a year or two and then have a renewal of life such as is seldom experienced by a new and once crushed institution.

Nothing daunted by the failure of the college at Worthington, Professor Morrow decided to carry on the work of medical reform in a more auspicious locality. Cincinnati was determined upon for the center of operations, and accordingly, in the winter of 1842-3, limited accommodations were secured in the old Hay Scales House, corner of Sixth and Vine Streets, and a series of lectures was given to a small class.

In this venture Doctor Morrow was assisted by a Worthington graduate (of 1832), Professor Alexander H. Baldridge, and by a Professor—Carr. In 1843 came Doctor Lorenzo E. Jones to assist in the work. He brought both zeal and business qualifications that made him a valuable acquisition. Lastly, Doctor James Kilbourne, Jr., son of Colonel Kilbourne, the stanch friend of Doctor Morrow and medical reform, was added to the faculty, in 1843. He had scarcely completed his first course of lectures, however, before consumption claimed him, and what promised a useful and brilliant career was brought to an abrupt close.

The school thus reorganized, was known as the "REFORMED MEDICAL SCHOOL OF CINCINNATI" and was the nucleus around which gathered the forces that ultimately established the Eclectic Medical Institute. The next removal was from the Hay Scales House to a house on Third Street. In 1845 "the large and spacious lecture room" known as the Fourth Street Hall, with adjoining rooms, was secured and accommodations were thus provided for from two hundred to three hundred students. The Western Medical Reformer (1845, Vol. V, p. 15) announced that "in the course of the ensuing spring and summer the Institute will most probably have ample college buildings of its own."

The school as then constituted was not yet a college in the sense of a legally chartered institution, that part of the charter of the Worthington college permitting the conferring of the Medical Degree having been annulled when the college at Worthington was forced to close. Therefore, in 1843, efforts were made to secure a charter giving the Cincinnati school the dignity and privileges of a medical college. Petitions were circulated among the people, in 1845, asking their signatures to a memorial to the Legislature. This was signed by eleven hundred (1100) of the foremost citizens of Cincinnati, including the mayor and members of the City Council. In this movement Dr. T. V. Morrow took the lead, and was ably assisted by Doctors L. E. Jones, A. H. Baldridge, B. L. Hill, John White, and others. The petition went to Columbus, but it did not go alone. Some sixty odd physicians of the allopathic branch of the profession, "conceiving a dreadful antipathy to the establishment of such a school as the competitor of the Ohio Medical College," sent in a counter-petition. Doctor O'Ferrall, of Piqua, Ohio, chairman of the Committee on Medical Colleges and Societies, voiced the views of the opposition in the extravagant statement "that the medical profession had reached the summit—the very acme of medical science—and that medicine does not need, nor is it susceptible of further improvement or reform." The reform petitioners were represented by Senator Ephraim Eckley, chairman of the Committee on Corporations, who in a masterly, if less grandiloquent, report than that of the Senator-Doctor from Piqua, recommended the passage of the measure.

On March 10, 1845, the bill incorporating THE ECLECTIC MEDICAL INSTITUTE was passed. The intolerant and illiberal spirit of medical monopoly was most signally rebuked. Colonel Kilbourne, who had been the friend of the School at Worthington, was the leader in this matter, and to his watchful interest was due the passage of the act. For him and for the new school and its faculty it was the hour of triumph, and it was appropriately celebrated.

Medical Reform was now fairly launched. Announcing the good news, the Western Medical Reformer issued the following manifesto:— "Our college will be strictly what its name indicates— Eclectic—excluding all such medicines and such remedies as, under ordinary circumstances of their judicious use, are liable to produce evil consequences or endanger the future health of the patient."

A faculty was organized—the first under the charter—constituted as follows: On Anatomy, Benjamin Lord Hill, M. D.; on Physiology, Pathology, Theory, and Practice of Medicine, Thomas Vaughan Morrow, M. D., Dean; on Surgery and Medical Jurisprudence, Hiram Cox, M. D.; on Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Botany, Lorenzo Elbridge Jones, M. D.; on Chemistry and Pharmacy, James Harvey Oliver, M. D.; on Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, Alexander Holmes Baldridge, M. D., Lectures on Clinical Medicine and Surgery, by Doctors Morrow and Cox. A session was immediately begun, and continued until July 1st. The fees were $5 per course for each professor.

The provisions of the charter making it obligatory upon the corporation "to possess property in its own right to the fair value of ten thousand dollars ($10,000)" before diplomas could be granted, enforced the providing of a building and thus the corporation was spurred to redoubled activity. Among others. Doctors L. E. Jones, Morrow, Baldridge, and Hill, but especially Doctor Jones, contributed liberally, and a college building was erected on a lot 90 x 46 ½ feet, on the northwest corner of Court and Plum Streets.

The edifice was completed in 1846, and first occupied November 7th, by the faculty and graduating class of 1847. Doctor Wooster Beach, the founder of Medical Reform, and now well along in years, came on from the East to take charge of the "clinique" and his text-book— "The American Practice"—was the only book on reformed medicine then available. Text-books of the regular school were still used, but the lectures on practice were carefully revised and presented according to the views of the reformed physicians. The new school was prosperous and had, in its first year, 81 students and 22 graduates; and in the following year, 127 students and 31 graduates.

The first year of the embryo institution passed off successfully, having had a good enrollment and a fair sized graduating class. Thus far Doctor Morrow had kept his hand on the helm. Being broad, tolerant, and liberal-minded, however, he was tempted, by the desire to spread reform and enlarge the school, to recognize and aid homeopathy—unwisely for the peace and prosperity of the new college.

He with others looked favorably upon the efforts of the homeopaths to gain a foothold, and inclined strongly toward the establishment of a chair of homeopathy in the Institute—a purpose duly announced in the college journal. This innovation, to be referred to hereafter, proved to be one of the first disturbing procedures in the progress of the infant school. Another was the addition to the faculty of one who for the next decade provoked continual uneasiness among the corps of teachers. On March 25, 1846, there was taken into the faculty a brilliant scholar and lecturer, who, though not deeply versed in medical knowledge, had recognized the justice of the cause of Eclecticism and had cast his lot with the reformers. He was a fluent and persuasive speaker, ready with the pen, and could grace the occasion when a convincing orator was needed to appear before the people. It was, therefore, considered a great stroke of policy when Doctor Joseph Rhodes Buchanan was added to the faculty.

Professor Buchanan remained with the school some ten years, and well-meaning though he undoubtedly was, he proved as visionary and unpractical as he was talented and eloquent. So tenacious was he of his favorite subject of cerebral physiology (closely allied to phrenology) and so insistent was he to display it on all occasions, that there soon arose dissensions in the faculty which resulted in the withdrawal of some of the most able professors from the teaching force.

In accordance with the liberal policy previously referred to, an invitation was sent to a body of Homeopathic physicians who had settled in the West and were contemplating the organization of a college of Homeopathists at Cleveland, to select a representative to occupy a chair of Homeopathy in the Institute. At a convention held by the Homeopathists at Cleveland, Professor Hill was present to urge the innovation.

On June 26, 1849, the invitation was accepted and Doctor Storm Rosa, of Painesville, Ohio, was unanimously chosen to fill the position, and Doctor David Sheppard, of Bainbridge, Ohio, was selected as editor of a Homeopathic Department in the Eclectic Medical Journal, the successor of the Western Medical Reformer.

During the following session of the Institute, Professor Rosa lectured "with dignity upon the principles of Homeopathy" as was declared by the whole class, "notwithstanding the many embarrassments appendaged thereunto." As a result, a few students were won over to Homeopathy, though the majority of the class remained Eclectic. At the Commencement, held March 6, 1850, six students received both Eclectic and Homeopathic diplomas. Thus was the Eclectic Medical Institute the first institution in the West to give Homeopathic instruction, and the first in the West to graduate a class in Homeopathy. In this class was the distinguished Homeopathic historian. Doctor David H. Beckwith, of Cleveland, who died in 1910.

The large-hearted liberality of Doctor Morrow and others interested in providing from the teaching of Homeopathy, proved but indiscretion, for within a year the college was as eager to rid itself of Homeopathy as it had been eager to invite it. The chair was, therefore, abolished, August 22, 1850. This attempt, as one of the participants expressed it, "to mix oil and water" proved a disturbing circumstance of far-reaching effect, and upon its inception the veteran reformer. Doctor A. H. Baldridge, and Doctor Jams H. Oliver, whose sympathy and training was strongly regular, promptly resigned. Other changes were also made in the personnel of the faculty. Doctor Beach, now infirm and with the pall of mental decay falling upon him (owing to the death of his favorite son by drowning), resigned active work and was made an emeritus professor. Doctor Horatio Page Gatchell, who had been selected to succeed Professor Baldridge, and who gave preliminary lectures to Doctor Rosa's course, resigned shortly afterward. Doctor Gatchell was a scholarly and cultured gentleman, little in sympathy with Eclecticism, for he was first and last a Homeopathist. In the place vacated by Professor Oliver was placed a young teacher and author of school-books, who, after teaching chemistry, resigned to study law and subsequently became one of the distinguished jurists of the West, John B. Stallo.

The attempted affiliation of Eclecticism and Homeopathy having failed, and the college now purged of the latter, renewed activity, better harmony, and success attended the school. The teaching was up-to-date, and a demand arose for Eclectic text-books. The first to be issued was, singularly, "The American Eclectic System of Surgery," by Professor B. L. Hill, of the faculty. It was a work of great merit and for many years remained the popular Eclectic text-book on surgery, though the author became a Homeopathist and teacher in a Homeopathic college.

The college was now well-established and growing in strength and numbers. Matriculates to the number of 145 were enrolled. A sad and unexpected calamity now seriously hampered the progress of the school and the cause. On July 16, 1850, the crushing blow came in the death (caused by dysentery), of the father of the Institute, Doctor T. Y. Morrow, then but 46 years of age. The school turned instinctively to his life-long friend and associate at Worthington, Doctor Ichabod Gibson Jones, of Columbus, to guide the institution. He accepted the leadership. Doctor Morrow had begun the preparation of a text-book upon practice. The task of completing this fell upon Doctor Jones, which he did in an eminently satisfactory manner, and the resulting two-volume "!Jones and Morrow's Practice" was for many years the guide for Eclectic physicians.

Doctor Jones was an able scholar, author, and teacher. Hard work and a constitutional disease had made sad inroads upon his health, and he failed to realize the hopes that he might fill the place of the lost leader. The college was therefore in sore straits. Professor Buchanan lacked financial capacity and was too insistent upon having his own way to successfully lead his colleagues. The only man of sound business qualifications, but one whose turbulent nature made him unpopular with his associate teachers, was Doctor L. E. Jones. Besides he and Doctor Buchanan were ever at swords' points. Hopeless financial embarrassment threatened, and something must be done and done quickly.

Those whose money was invested in the school and building then invited Professor Robert Safford Newton, M. D., of the Memphis Medical Institute, to come to Cincinnati and take charge of the Institute. He came and brought with him from the Memphis faculty. Professors William Byrd Powell, Zoheth Freeman, J. Milton Sanders, LL. D., and John King, 1851. These, with the exception of King and Powell, united with the unresigned portion of the faculty (Doctors I. G. Jones, L. E. Jones, J. E. Buchanan, and B. L. Hill) and formed a new, and perhaps the strongest faculty the college had had, with Doctor Newton as Dean.

Again prosperity seemed assured, when resignations reduced the faculty to four members. Professor Hill resigned to enter .the faculty of the Cleveland Homeopathic College. He was succeeded by Doctor John King, who was then preparing his great work, "The Eclectic Dispensatory." Doctor I. G. Jones returned to Columbus, to recuperate his health. Doctor Beach's name was dropped from the faculty, and Professors Freeman and Sanders withdrew. Only L. E. Jones, E. S. Newton, John King, and J. E. Buchanan remained as teachers. Now [1852] appeared that eventful publication by King and Newton, "The Eclectic Dispensatory," afterward, "American Dispensatory."

Buchanan, ever resourceful, but always visionary, conceived a scheme (in 1858) of instituting a great "Free College of America," in which a medical education would be practically free and within the grasp of all medical aspirants. A costly building was to be erected with a hospital of 1,000 beds attached thereto, and a large library and an anatomical and physiological museum were proposed. The professional fees ($60) were to be abolished, and only matriculation ($10), dissection ($5), and graduation ($20) fees were to be exacted. This Utopian dream, conceived no doubt with purely philanthropic motives, but wholly suicidal to Eclectic interests, was strongly opposed by Professors Freeman and Sanders, hence their resignations. The venture failed to materialize, however, and another rearrangement of the faculty was all that came of it. At no time, from the proposed free educational scheme until 1856, was the college in a safe, settled, and sound condition, and changes in the personnel of the faculty were numerous.

During this period there came into the faculty Doctors George W. L. Bickley, a scholar and adventurer (whose romantic career reminds one of that of Aaron Burr), William Sherwood, Daniel Vaughn, the most profound scientist Cincinnati has ever known, and John Wesley Hoyt, since distinguished in public life and still among the living. For the four succeeding years harmony was out of the question, for the dislike of Professors Buchanan and L. E. Jones for each other kept forever smoldering the embers of a species of internecine strife that had a decidedly depressing influence upon the school.

This, too, was the period when the integrity of Eclectic Medicines was threatened by the "resinoid" distraction, with which dishonest manufacturers came near disrupting Eclecticism. Finally, there arose a fierce war against Professor L. E. Jones (conducted most largely upon paper) which displayed to full advantage the ridiculous frailties of all concerned. Another disturber was to come. Professor Bickley, having resigned on account of ill-health, there was appointed in his place a physician of scholarly attainments, but educated in the regular school and consequently one not able to appreciate the position, or the virtues, of the Eclectic System of medicine.

A man of native intelligence and shrewdness, and of good business training. Doctor Charles Harley Cleaveland might have rendered signal service had he not proved tactless and turbulent and disposed to controversialism. He knew little concerning Eclectic medicines, and through his conduct in the matter of the resinoids he became the most potent factor in bringing about the imbroglio which disrupted the college and led to the institution of a rival school in 1856.

From the foregoing it might appear that the college had accomplished nothing in the first years of its existence, because of the frequent involvement of men and methods. But the ordinary mortal, however seriously he views his own importance, seldom cuts a wide swath in life's harvest. While he may hamper a good work he seldom succeeds in crushing it. There is always some one to supply the place of the disaffected, and the world's work moves on. Most of the men who served on the faculties were capable and qualified, but many aspired to leadership which rightfully belonged to others, and there were continual bickerings and back-biting which would have wrecked a less deserving cause.

Yet, in spite of all, the school and the cause progressed and prospered and the college waxed in power and numbers up to the very verge of the civil war. That "money makes the mare go" was as true then as now, and ever will be. What was most needed in the college was a leader with Morrow's harmonizing and organizing qualifications, plus good business sense and financial integrity. Notwithstanding the many and seemingly needless embarrassments, we find that up to 1855 the college had matriculated 2,145 students and graduated 593 doctors—a decidedly good showing for a cause not yet three decades old, and a college but ten years established. The following table shows its yearly progress:

Years, Matric., Grad., Years, Matric., Grad.
1845-46, 81, 22, 1850-51, 211, 45
1846-47, 127, 31, 1851-52, 212, 58
1847-48, 220, 48, 1852-53, 308, 70
1848-49, 191, 47, 1853-54, 292, 126
1849-50, 224, 65, 1854-55, 279, 81

Thus, during the first ten years of its existence, the Eclectic Medical Institute had been a tremendous success and had thrived vigorously "independent of the patronage of the State, and without any aid from pecuniary endowment; independent of all subservience to medical cliques, societies or combinations; claiming and exercising the right of independent progress in the improvement of medical science; extending a liberal and courteous professional recognition to all other schools; proscribing none, and claiming for itself an honorable independence."

The great crisis in the history of the college came in the spring of 1856. Instead of taking refuge in resignations as before, the faculty became hopelessly divided into two factions, each of which sought to obtain control of the building and college management. Doctors Newton and Freeman led one group, and Doctors Cleaveland and Buchanan the other. The cause of the disaffection was bad financial management and the thirst for control. Salaries had long been left unpaid. The result was open hostilities, threatening actual bloodshed. The college "stock" became the bone of contention, and the Cleaveland party sought surreptitiously to control the Board of Trustees, in order to expel Doctors Newton and Freeman from the faculty. Tinkering with the stock was also resorted to. The matter was finally taken to the Superior Court, where an injunction was obtained by Doctor Newton restraining "the seceding members of the faculty, or other persons assuming to act as trustees, from the performance of all and every act but that of lecturing," and a writ was issued to bring the illegal stock into court to be cancelled. The injunction was subsequently dissolved and the war went on. The trustees then expelled Doctors Buchanan, Sherwood, King, Cleaveland, and Hoyt. The seceders elected a rival Board of Trustees.

To the faculty of the Eclectic Medical Institute, now under control of the Newton party, were appointed Doctors William Byrd Powell, L. E. Jones, and J. Milton Sanders, in place of those expelled. The next year Doctors A. H. Baldridge and G. W. L. Bickley returned into the faculty, but the most important accessions made up to this time were those of Doctors Edwin Freeman and John Milton Scudder, both but recently graduated. The summer of 1856 was consumed in disputation and legal maneuvering, and quo-warranto proceedings were resorted to to determine which was the legal Board of Trustees. The matter was decided by the Court in favor of the Newton party, with Robert S. Newton as the lawful treasurer, and the bogus stock was cancelled by order of the Court. Thus ended the legal controversy. An opposition college was organized by the seceders. After a career of nearly three years, peace was declared and the rival college merged with the old Institute. The rival college had, if anything, the most brilliant faculty, and into it had come one who was destined to become the foremost Eclectic Surgeon of his day—Doctor Andrew Jackson Howe. In 1858, Doctor Herod D. Garrison entered the faculty of the reunited colleges, and in 1859 Doctors Charles T. Hart and Andrew Jackson Howe.

In the first thirteen years of its existence the Eclectic Medical Institute, with all its upheavals, enrolled a greater number of matriculants than any medical school west of the Alleghanies during a similar period of establishment.

One more shadow was to fall upon the college. The civil war with all its horrors and hardships was about to disrupt the North and the South. The South had sent many students to the college, and these withdrew for loyal reasons, and from necessity. Two schools could not be successfully conducted, and this led to the merger as recorded. The beginning years of the civil war, while reducing the number of students and the income, coupled with bad financial manipulations threatening the very existence of the school, did not seem to dishearten the management. But the year 1862 brought its full measure of gloom and discouragement. Hope was almost lost, and the classes were feeble in numbers. It was the darkness before dawn. The college organ had died for want of subscriptions six months before. Eclectics were discriminated against in the army service, and every effort was made by the adherents of regularism in medicine to crush Eclecticism.

A leader now arose in the person of John Milton Scudder, who relinquished a large and lucrative practice to save Eclecticism and the college. Once more the sun shone upon Eclecticism. A renewal of life and courage was felt, and business methods were applied to the management of the school. Doctor Scudder also purchased the defunct Journal, put new life into it, and made it a successful college organ. Belying upon the loyalty of Eclectic graduates, he threw his powerful personality into the work before him; he got everybody else to working, and he carefully chose his teaching force from men true and tried in Eclecticism. The result was that the college had, in 1862, the largest classes of any medical college in the city (though all classes! in the city were now small), and it had graduated, up to 1868, 1,002 physicians and matriculated 3,286 students.

Notwithstanding the small graduating class of nine in 1863, and the prospects of "draft" into the army, the class of 1864 numbered 119, and greater numbers marked the closing year of the war. The college was out of debt, thoroughly equipped, owned its own building, had furnished nearly all Eclectic text-books that had been published, and had a strong and veteran faculty. Scudder's splendid "Eclectic Medical Practice" appeared in 1864, and gave new life to the cause. From 1864 on the career of the college has been a succession of successes. During the night of November 20, 1870, a fire partially destroyed the college building, yet but one hour of lectures was lost. The ever resourceful dean secured a hall so that lectures were resumed in the morning.

A new and elegant stone-front building was erected in 1871, and dedicated with impressive ceremonies. The largest gathering of Eclectic physicians that had ever convened at one time was present, and an Alumni Association was formed.

This building served until 1910, and in its halls most of the present Alumni received their medical education.

The future of Eclecticism in medicine was assured when Doctor Scudder took control of the college and rehabilitated the "Eclectic Medical Journal." But more beneficial than all, perhaps, was his master-stroke in giving to the world the system of specific medication upon which he had worked since 1859. In 1868 he announced his intention to publish results of his studies, which he did, in 1869 and through 1870, in the columns of the Journal. Subsequently these studies were put into book form as "Specific Medication and Specific Medicines."

This book made a profound impression and gave a distinctive-ness to Eclectic Medicine such as it had not possessed since its earliest years. Two years previously he put out "Principles of Medicine" and King published his encyclopedic "Chronic Diseases." In 1870 Professor Howe published "Fractures and Dislocations" Thus a substantial Eclectic literature grew up and made Eclecticism independent in so far as text-books were concerned. Practically all of the text-book literature had thus far been prepared by the members of the faculty of the college.

From 1871, when the new building was dedicated, the story of the college is a history of healthy growth—in influence, numbers, and work. There were added to the faculty, now small in size but large in caliber, Jerome P. Marvin, M. D., in 1871, and Thomas C. Hannah, M. D., in 1873. In 1874 the important accession was the gifted scholar, linguist, and scientist. Doctor John Allard Jeancon.

In 1874 Professor Scudder's greatest work, in the estimation of the writer— "Specific Diagnosis"—was published, and this production alone is an imperishable monument to its author. Howe's "Art and Science of Surgery" came out in 1876, a befitting gift for the Centennial year.

A Woman's Hospital was established in connection with the college in 1877, but it ran the sands of life quickly. In 1879 John Uri Lloyd, a practical chemist, was made professor of chemistry—an accession giving strength to the school and eminent satisfaction to the students. The requirements were now gradually heightened and the fees increased commensurately. Harmony prevailed, and the faculty had become a stable body. Scudder, King, E. Freeman, Locke, Howe, Jeancon, and Lloyd constituted one of the ablest faculties ever possessed by any medical institution in this country, and they served uninterruptedly for many years. The yearly term rose to two sessions of twenty weeks each in 1879, or 1,368 lectures per year.

In 1880 the "Supplement to the American Dispensatory," King and Lloyd, appeared, and Jeancon published an elaborate "Anatomical Atlas." Lloyd's "Chemistry of Medicines" appeared in 1881. In 1882 Scudder's "Materia Medica" a condensed but fully revised edition of Jones' and Scudder's Materia Medica, was issued, and in 1884 "Pathological Anatomy" by Doctor Jeancon. This was followed by an elaborate conception in drug study, titled "Drugs and Medicines of North America" by J. U. and C. G. Lloyd, which, however, was but partially completed.

In 1887 age and ill-health were beginning to tell upon the old faculty. New blood was infused and Doctors Rolla L. Thomas and William E. Bloyer were added to the teaching force, and Judge Fayette Smith was made lecturer on Jurisprudence. In 1888 the first distinct department of Eye and Ear instruction was established, and Doctor Eli Melvin McPheron placed in charge. In 1890 Doctor Lyman Watkins was placed in charge of the new Histology department. Doctor Robert G. Wintermute took up Professor King's work in the faculty, and William L. Dickson (now Judge Dickson) was given Judge Smith's position on the staff.

In 1891 Doctors William Byrd Scudder and Harvey Wickes Felter were added to the faculty. The same year the Institute received the diploma of the "Exposition Universelle," held at Paris, Prance, in 1889, for its showing of catalogues, publications, and eighteen text-books written by the faculty. These were deposited permanently in the Bibliotheque Medicale, the request for the display having come, unsolicited, from the Department of Education of France.

The death angel appeared frequently in the early '90s. Former Professors Garrison and Judge passed away in 1891. On January 16, 1892, the great Howe was stricken; on June 19, 1893, Doctor King, the beloved teacher, was called; and on February 17, 1894, the sudden death of Doctor Scudder was announced.

Immediately after the death of Professor Scudder a rearrangement of the faculty was made, with Doctor Locke as Dean. A new clinic was established, and an amphitheater was fitted up for the increased duties of the professors. A corps of lecturers and clinicians was appointed, under the lead of Doctor William N. Mundy, who had now come into the faculty. Among those who came into the faculty, in one position or another, at this time were Doctors Bishop McMillen, John K. Scudder, E. T. Behymer, Charles G. Smith, G. W. Brown, W. W. Barber, and Grant Van Horn. Doctors L. E. Russell and John E. Spencer entered in 1895. Emerson Venable and Doctor H. Ford Scudder were added in 1897. Doctor Kent O. Foltz began service in 1898, and died in 1908.

In 1901 the College formed an alliance with the Seton Hospital, an excellently equipped institution, thus adding to the prestige and facilities of the Institute. This building was abandoned when the management purchased the building now occupied by the Seton Hospital, which adjoins the present home of the College. During a portion of the last decade. Doctors Byron Van Horn, Charles S. Amidon, and Herbert E. Sloan served satisfactorily as teachers. In 1909 was begun the construction of the present College building, a six-story, modern structure, fire-proof, and completely equipped for didactic and clinical instruction.

Up to 1910 and since 1845, the College had passed under the name ECLECTIC MEDICAL INSTITUTE. For substantial reasons, the title was changed, in 1910, to the ECLECTIC MEDICAL COLLEGE.

Of those who have served on the various faculties of the Eclectic Medical Institute there are some who may be said to have achieved distinction: Wooster Beach was the founder of Eclecticism, an author of renown, and was honored on several occasions by royal recognition from the ruling princes of the Old World; T. V. Morrow was the promoter of Eclecticism in the West, and the founder of the Institute; B. L. Hill wrote the first distinctly Eclectic textbook, "The Eclectic Practice of Surgery," was a member of the Ohio and Michigan Legislatures, and Consul to Nicaragua under President Lincoln; Joseph Rodes Buchanan was a medical philosopher, investigator, scientist, and general scholar; Storm Rosa was the first Homeopathic professor in the West, and president of the first gathering of Homeopathists in the West (at Burton, Ohio, in 1847); John B. Stallo became a distinguished lawyer, author, and diplomat, and was Minister to Italy under President Cleveland; Daniel Vaughn is conceded to have been the most profound scholar Cincinnati has ever produced; John Wesley Hoyt became famous in public life and as an educator, was Governor of Wyoming, and originator of the movement to establish a National University at Washington, D. C.; G. W. L. Bickley, historian and adventurer, and Chief of the Order of the Golden Circle, was under the ban of President Lincoln during the Civil War; John King was the founder of American Materia Medica, a prolific author, and taught obstetrics for upward of forty years; William Byrd Powell was an ethnologist distinguished for his peculiar views,. and the author of a novel work entitled "The History of the Human Temperaments" John Milton Scudder, author and distinguished journalist, saved the Institute at a crucial period in its career and immortalized himself by originating the doctrine of specific medication; Edwin Freeman was a distinguished teacher of anatomy for a third of a century; Herod D. Garrison, scholar, philosopher, and public lecturer, was one of the founders of Bennett Medical College; Andrew J. Howe became the best known Eclectic surgeon of his time; Frederick J. Locke taught materia medica in the Institute for threescore years; John Uri Lloyd, chemist, pharmacist, and author, has written many scientific works, as well as Etidorhpa and the Stringtown novels, has been signally honored by pharmacal societies and is an ex-president of the American Pharmaceutical Association; John A. Jeancon was a distinguished scientist and linguist; William E. Bloyer was president of the National Association; Rolla L. Thomas, author of "Thomas' Practice of Medicine" was also a president of the National; L. E. Russell is a surgeon of national repute and an ex-president of the National; and John King Scudder has served on the Ohio State Board of Medical Registration, has been secretary of Eclectic Medical Institute for about twenty years, and is also an ex-president of the National Eclectic Medical Association.

The College, as now managed, has no stock nor stockholders, and is under the control of fifteen trustees representing the graduates. The property is valued at $57,500 (ground, $7,500; six-story brick and stone building, $45,000; equipment and furniture, $5,000). Up to 1910, inclusive, the number of graduates was 3,978. When the present class of 1911 graduates the total will have exceeded 4,000. Of this number, at least 1,842 are known to be living and in active practice.

Briefly, and necessarily fragmentarily, we have traced the annals of the Eclectic Medical Institute. The most stress has been put upon the formative period, for after the Civil War and under the leadership of John M. Scudder, her course was fairly smooth and largely undisturbed by internal dissensions. The College has stood, and stands to-day, the foremost exponent of the principles and practice of American Eclecticism in medicine. It is fortified with a strong teaching force, and fostered by a loyal Alumnal body. It advocates and teaches the use of kindly curative remedies and the avoidance of depressing or depletive medication. It advocates liberality of thought, the higher medical education, and the cultivation of professional honor and dignity.

The College has taught and has been the pioneer in the study of indigenous materia medica, with special reference to specific selection of remedies in the treatment of diseases. It has contended for the best pharmacy possible, that the minimum amount of medicine may accomplish the maximum of good. Harmful medication, as exemplified in excessive drugging, has been consistently opposed, heroic overdrugging having been one of the causes leading to the necessity for and the establishment of the Eclectic school.

The Eclectic Medical College has contended for the best preliminary training, the most advanced medical education, for "the simplest and purest of remedies, for exactness in medication, and for the ethics that govern gentlemen."

The present faculty of the College is constituted as follows:

Arranged by departments: Bishop McMillen, M. D., Shepard, O., Emeritus Professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases; Rolla L. Thomas, A. M., M. D., 792 E. McMillan St., Cincinnati, O., Professor of the Practice of Medicine, Dean of the Faculty; John K. Scudder, A. M., M. D., 630 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, O., Secretary of the Faculty; Edwin R. Freeman, M. D., Seventh and John Sts., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases; George E. Dash, M. D., 1634 Westwood Ave., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Physical Diagnosis and Clinical Medicine; Louis C. Wottring, M. D., 3534 Montgomery Ave., Evanston, Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Specific Diagnosis and Clinical Medicine; Wilbur E. Postle, M. D., Shepard, O., Professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases; Victor P. Wilson, M. D., 1612 Western Ave., Cincinnati, O., Lecturer on Hygiene and Sanitation.

L. E. Russel, A. M., M. D., The Groton, Cincinnati, O., Professor of Clinical Surgery and Gynecology; Eben B. Shewman, M. D., 618 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Surgery and Gynecology; J. Stewart Hagen, M. D., 1506 Harrison Ave., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Surgery and Gynecology; Victor P. Wilson, M. D., 1612 Western Ave., Cincinnati, O., Clinical Instructor in Surgery;

Eben B. Shewman, M. D., 618 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Anatomy; John L. Payne, M. D., 918 W. Eighth St., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Embryology and Histology; Howard C. Von Dahm, M. D., Madison Road, Oakley, Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Anatomy

Lyman Watkins, M. D., Blanchester, O., Professor of Pathology and Physiology; F. Browne Grosvenor, B. S., M. D., 630 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Pathology, Bacteriology, and Physiology.

Harvey W. Felter, M. D., Chase and Pitts Sts., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Medical History; Louis C. Wottring, M. D., 3534 Montgomery Ave., Evanston, Cincinnati, O., Lecturer on Specific Medication; Charles E. Eha, M. D., Hyde Park, Cincinnati, O., Instructor in Electro-Therapeutics.

John R. Spencer, M. D., 952 W. Eighth St., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Obstetrics.

John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Court and Plum Sts., Cincinnati, O., Emeritus Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Charles Gregory Smith, M. D., 224 Dorchester Ave., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Charles Apmeyer, Ph. G., Madison and Wallace Aves., Covington, Ky., Associate Professor of Chemistry.

William N. Mundy, M. D., Forest, O., Professor of Pediatrics; Charles W. Beaman, M. D., 286 W. McMicken Ave., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Pediatrics; John Swanson, M. D., 705 Commercial Tribune Bidg., Cincinnati, O., Clinical Instructor in Pediatrics.

Thomas Bowles, M. D., Harrison, O., Professor of Medical Gynecology; J. Stewart Hagen, M. D., 1505 Harrison Ave., Cincinnati, O., Associate Professor of Surgical Gynecology; John L. Payne, M. D., 918 W. Eighth St., Cincinnati, O., Clinical Instructor in Gynecology.

Robert C. Heflebower, M. D., 22 W. Seventh St., Cincinnati, O., Professor of Ophthalmology, Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology; Edward J. Buten, M. D., 936 York St., Newport, Ky., Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmology; John P. Harbert, A. M., M. D., Beliefontaine, O., Associate Professor of Ophthalmology.

Judge William L. Dickson, LL. D., Union Trust Bidg., Cincinnati, O., Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence.

Harry T. Davidson, M. D., 618 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, Resident Interne, Seton Hospital.

The Biographies of King, Howe, and Scudder, 1912, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M. D.