Euonymi Cortex, B.P. Euonymus Bark.
Euonymus bark (Euonymus, U.S.P.) is the dried root-bark of Euonymus atropurpureus, Jaquin (N.O. Celastrineae), a shrub common in the eastern United States. The root and stem bark are both collected, but the former is alone official in the B.P. or U.S.P. It occurs in small quilled or curved pieces, from 2 to 4 millimetres thick, about 7.5 centimetres in length, and 12.5 millimetres in width. The outer layer of the bark consists of a soft spongy cork, light ash-grey in colour, but marked with darker lines and patches. The inner surface is pale yellow and smooth when free from fragments of the wood. The bark breaks with a short fracture, and if the two pieces are gently separated from one another, delicate elastic threads can be seen connecting them. The bark contains laticiferous cells in which a substance resembling caoutchouc is secreted . this substance forms the elastic threads referred to. The odour is faint, but characteristic; the taste, bitter and acrid.
Constituents.—The chief constituent of the bark is a nearly colourless, amorphous, bitter principle, to which the name euonymin has been applied, as well as to a crystalline glucoside which is also present in this drug. Both principles must be distinguished from commercial euonymin (see Extractum Euonymi), which is a powdered extract of the drug. The bark also contains dulcite.
Action and Uses.—Euonymus bark is used in medicine in the form of Extractum Euonymi and Tinctura Euonymi. It is a mild cathartic, and is said to increase the flow of bile; as the drug is not absorbed this cannot be a specific effect upon the liver; it is probably due to a reflex contraction of the gall bladder, an effect common to all purgatives which irritate the duodenum. The dry extract is made into pills with syrup of glucose, or combined with iridin or the extracts of cascara, henbane, or nux vomica; it is also prepared in tablet and capsule form, especially with cascara. Tincture of euonymus is given with digestives and liver stimulants (see Elixir Euonymi et Pepsini and Liquor Euonymi et Cascarae).
- Elixir Euonymi Compositum, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ELIXIR OF EUONYMUS.
- Tincture of euonymus, 4; with extract of iris, stronger glycerin of pepsin, bismuth and ammonium citrate, solution of cochineal and simple elixir, to Inc. A digestive mixture and supposed cholagogue. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Elixir Euonymi et Pepsini, B.P.C.—ELIXIR or EUONYMUS AND PEPSIN. Syn.—Liquor Euonymi cum Pepsino.
- Tincture of euonymus, 12.5; stronger glycerin of pepsin, 17.5; and simple elixir, to 100. A digestive adjuvant. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Extractum Euonymi Siccum, B.P.—DRY EXTRACT or EUONYMUS. Syn.—Extractum Euonymi; Extract of Euonymus; Euonymin; Brown Euonymin.
- Euonymus bark, in No. 20 powder. 100; alcohol (45 per cent.), a sufficient quantity; calcium phosphate, a sufficient quantity. Add 50 of the alcohol to the drug, pack in a percolator, exhaust by percolation with more of the alcohol, and evaporate the percolate to dryness; powder the residue, mix the product with one-fourth its weight of calcium phosphate, again dry, powder, and preserve in a well-stoppered bottle. Extract of euonymus is a brown powder. The substance known commercially as euonymin is of very indefinite nature, being prepared from the bark of Euonymus atropurpureus in various ways. The name has been applied to the mixture of substances precipitated on pouring a concentrated alcoholic tincture into a large volume of water as well as to Extractum Euonymi Siccum. Euonymin prepared from the stem bark is known as "green euonymin," because of the presence of chlorophyll, while the B.P. preparation is known as "brown euonymin." Substances other than calcium phosphate are sometimes added as absorbents or diluents, e.g., milk sugar, alumina, or lycopodium. The ash of such preparations may therefore vary from 1 or 2 per cent. to as much as 53 per cent. In any case, the commercial preparation is not to be confounded with the nearly colourless, bitter principle of the same name. Dry extract of euonymus must be carefully stored in a cool and dry place, or it will absorb moisture and become coherent. It is prescribed in pill form often with extract of henbane, extract of cascara, iridin, or extract of nux vomica for the treatment of constipation with pale stools. Dose.—6 to 12 centigrams (1 to 2 grains).
- Extractum Euonymi, U.S.P.—EXTRACT OF EUONYMUS.
- Fluidextract of euonymus, 100; powdered liquorice root, sufficient to produce 25. The fluidextract is evaporated to dryness, and the finely-powdered residue mixed with sufficient of the powdered liquorice to make 25. Average dose.—125 milligrams (2 grains).
- Fluidextractum Euonymi, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF EUONYMUS.
- Euonymus, in No. 40 powder, 100 alcohol (76 per cent.), a sufficient quantity to make 100. Average dose.—5 decimils (0.5 milliliters) (8 minims).
- Liquor Euonymini, B.P.C.—SOLUTION OF EUONYMIN. 7.32 (extract) in 100
- Has a mild aperient action, and is supposed to be a cholagogue. Dose.—1 to 2 mils (15 to 30 minims).
- Liquor Euonymini et Cascarae, B.P.C.—SOLUTION OF EUONYMIN AND CASCARA.
- Dry extract of euonymus, 3.66; alcohol (45 per cent.), 25; miscible liquid extract of cascara, to 100. Employed as an aperient in chronic constipation. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Liquor Euonymini et Iridini, B.P.C.—SOLUTION OF EUONYMIN AND IRIDIN.
- Dry extract of euonymus, 3.66; extract of iris, 1.83; potassium carbonate, 1.37; distilled water, 25; alcohol (45 per cent.), to 100. Used as a purgative, and is generally supposed to augment the secretion of bile by increasing the activity of the liver. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Liquor Euonymini et Pepsini, B.P.C.—SOLUTION OF EUONYMIN AND PEPSIN.
- Dry extract of euonymus, 1.83; pepsin, 3.65; diluted hydrochloric acid, 3.65 alcohol (45 per cent.), 30; chloroform water, to 100. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Tinctura Euonymi, B.P.C.—TINCTURE OF EUONYMUS. 1 in 5.
- Used as a purgative in chronic constipation. It has also some action on the heart, resembling that of digitalis, and is supposed to increase the flow of bile. Dose.—½ to 2 ½ mils (10 to 40 minims).