Jaborandi Folia, B.P., Jaborandi Leaves.
Jaborandi leaves (Pilocarpus, U.S.P.) consists of the dried leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi, Holmes (N.O. Rutaceae), a shrub indigenous to Brazil, and producing large, imparipinnate, compound leaves; these are collected, dried, and exported. The leaflets are, dull brownish-green in colour, from 6 to 10 centimetres in length oval-oblong, or oblong-lanceolate in shape, and coriaceous in texture. The margin is entire, and the apex emarginate. The leaves are, with the exception of the terminal leaflet, unequal at the base, and shortly petiolate. The upper surface is glabrous, the lateral veinlets are distinctly prominent; the under surface sometimes bears a few scattered hairs. The mesophyll contains numerous oil glands, which are easily visible when examined by transmitted light. The crushed leaves emit a somewhat aromatic odour; they have a pungent and aromatic taste, and produce a copious flow of saliva when chewed. The drug yields about 7 per cent. of ash on incineration. Several substitutes for genuine jaborandi have appeared from time to time; the following are the most important:—Paraguay jaborandi, from P. pennatifolius, Lemaire. The leaves are of a greyish-green colour, and are less coriaceous; on the upper surface the veinlets are less prominent, and all the leaflets are equal at the base. They contain but little total alkaloid (0.2 to 0.3 per cent.). Rio Janeiro jaborandi, from P. selloanus, Engler, closely resembles the above, but the leaflets are more obovate. Maranham jaborandi, from P. microphyllus, Stapf, average about 3 centimetres only in length, are deeply emarginate at the apex, and usually asymmetrical; the rachis is slightly winged. They contain about 0.8 per cent. of total alkaloid, of which about 0.5 per cent. is pilocarpine, and as they are exported in large quantities they form the chief source of pilocarpine. Ceara jaborandi, from P. trachylophus, Holmes;these are of less frequent occurrence, and are easily recognised by their olive-green colour, recurved margins, and by the abundant short curved hairs on the under surface. The leaves of Piper jaborandi, Vellozo, are large, thin, grey, and papery in texture; the stems exhibit distinct swelling at the nodes; they contain no pilocarpine. Guadeloupe jaborandi, from Pilocarpus racemosus, Vahl., consists of large ovate leaflets attaining 17 centimetres or more in length. They contain from 0.5 to 1.00 per cent. of alkaloid, but what proportion of this is pilocarpine remains to be determined. Pilocarpus, U.S.P., should contain not less than 0.5 per cent. of alkaloids.
Constituents.—Jaborandi contains three alkaloids, pilocarpine, isopilocarpine, and pilocarpidine, of which the pilocarpine is the most important, and occurs in the largest proportion; it is isomeric with isopilocarpine, which can be converted into pilocarpine by heating with alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. Pilocarpine occurs to the maximum extent of about 0.5 per cent.; it has not yet been obtained in crystals, but forms crystalline salts. Isopilocarpine exists in much smaller amount, and its action is weaker than that of pilocarpine, which may be regarded as practically the chief active constituent of the leaves. The leaves also contain about 0.5 per cent. of a volatile oil, which has a powerful odour, recalling that of rue.
Action and Uses.—The properties of jaborandi are essentially those of the alkaloid pilocarpine (see Pilocarpinae Nitras). Preparations of jaborandi are used to produce prompt diaphoresis, especially in kidney disease; they are also powerfully sialagogue, and increase the gastric juice. The tincture and liquid extract are given in mixture form; they are also added to hair lotions for their supposed effect in promoting the growth of the hair and restoring its colour. For constancy of action, the salts of the alkaloid pilocarpine are preferred to the galenical preparations of the crude drug. Preparations of jaborandi are completely antagonised by those of belladonna.
- Extractum Jaborandi, B.P. 1885.—EXTRACT OF JABORANDI. Syn.—Extractum Pilocarpi; Extract of Pilocarpus.
- Jaborandi leaves, in No. 40 powder, 100; alcohol (60 per cent.), 250. Exhaust the drug by percolation with the alcohol, and evaporate the percolate to a suitable consistence. Extract of jaborandi is a suitable preparation of the drug for use in the form of pills. Dose.—1 to 6 decigrams (2 to 10 grains).
- Extractum Jaborandi Liquidum, B.P.—LIQUID EXTRACT OF JABORANDI. Syn.—Extractum Pilocarpi Liquidum; Liquid Extract of Pilocarpus.
- Jaborandi leaves, in No. 20 powder, 100; alcohol (45 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Add 50 of the alcohol to the drug, pack in a percolator, and allow to macerate for twelve hours; then percolate until 335 of liquid has been collected, reserving the first 85 of percolate. Concentrate the subsequent percolate to a soft extract, dissolve this in the reserved portion, and add sufficient of the alcohol to make up to the required volume. Liquid extract of jaborandi may be prescribed in the form of mixture for its diaphoretic properties, but its action is not constant, as the amount of pilocarpine it contains varies. It is also used in lotions (1 part in 16) for promoting the growth of the hair. Dose.—3 to 10 decimils (5 to 15 minims).
- Fluidextractum Pilocarpi, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF PILOCARPUS.
- Jaborandi leaves, in No. 40 powder, 100; alcohol (49 per cent.), sufficient to produce about 100. The product is standardised to contain 0.4 per cent. w/v of the alkaloids from jaborandi leaves. Average dose.—2 mils (30 minims).
- Infusum Jaborandi, B.P.C.—INFUSION OF JABORANDI. 1 to 20.
- Used as a vehicle for other diaphoretics, but is not often ordered. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (½ to 1 fluid ounce).
- Tinctura Jaborandi, B.P.—TINCTURE OF JABORANDI.
- Jaborandi leaves, in No. 40 powder, 20; alcohol (45 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Add 12.5 of the alcohol to the drug to moisten it, and complete the percolation process. Tincture of jaborandi is employed as a diaphoretic. It is also added to hair lotions (1 in 8) to promote the growth of hair. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
The British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1911, was published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.