Amygdala Dulcis, B.P., Sweet Almond.
Sweet almonds are the dried ripe seeds of Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes, var. dulcis, Baillon (N.O. Rosaceae). They are also official in the U.S.P. 'The sweet almond tree closely resembles the bitter almond, and is cultivated in the same districts, but especially in Southern Italy, Southern France, and Spain. The variety known as the Jordan almond, which is exported from Malaga, is alone official, and may be recognised by its large size and long narrow shape, being about 2.25 to 2.5 centimetres long and 1.5 broad. Valencia almonds, which are also exported from Spain, are shorter and broader.
Constituents.—When fresh, sweet almonds contain an average of 27.7 per cent. of water, 16.5 per cent. of proteins (including emulsin), 41.0 per cent. of fixed oil, and 2.8 per cent. of cellulose. They contain no starch, and leave, when incinerated, about 1.5 to 2 per cent. of ash. The most important constituent is the fixed oil, which varies in quantity from about 35 to 56 per cent. The oil cake which is left after the expression of the oil contains about 10 per cent. of water, 15 per cent. of oil, 41 per cent. of protein, 20 per cent. of non-protein, 9 per cent. of fibre, and 4.3 per cent. of mineral constituents. Sweet almonds differ essentially from bitter almonds in containing no amygdalin; the taste of the seeds, and of the emulsion obtained by triturating them with water, is bland and agreeable.
Action and Uses.—Sweet almonds are demulcent, and a mixture made from the compound powder of almonds is a useful vehicle for cough medicines. Almond flour, when deprived of its oil forms a valuable material for preparing bread for diabetic patients. Almond meal is used as a "water-softener" for toilet purposes.
- Emulsum Amygdalae, U.S.P.—EMULSION OF ALMOND.
- Sweet almond, 6; acacia, in fine powder, 1; sugar, 3; distilled water, sufficient to produce 100. Average dose.—120 mils (4 fluid ounces).
- Lotio Rosae, B.P.C.—ROSE LOTION. Syn.—Lac Rosae; Milk of Roses. 1 in 10.
- Almonds, curd soap, white wax, oil of almonds, oil of bergamot, oil of lavender, oil of rose, alcohol, and diluted rose water.
- Mistura Amygdalae, B.P.—ALMOND MIXTURE. Syn.—Lac Amygdalae; Milk of Almonds; Emulsio Amygdalae; Emulsio Simplex.
- Compound almond powder, 1; distilled water, 8. Almond mixture is employed as a demulcent vehicle for cough mixtures, and to suspend terebene and similar drugs not readily miscible with water. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (½ to 1 fluid ounce),
- Pulvis Amygdalae Compositus, B.P.—COMPOUND POWDER OF ALMONDS.
- Sweet almonds, 8; refined sugar, in powder, 4; gum acacia, in powder, 1. This compound powder is used as an emulsifying agent, and to prepare demulcent mixtures for use in cough.