Oleum Santali, B.P. Oil of Sandal Wood.
Synonym.—Oil of Santal Wood.
Oil of sandal wood (Oil of Santal, U.S.P.), is obtained by distillation from the wood of Santalum album, Linn. (N.O. Santalaceae), a small tree indigenous to the mountains of India, and cultivated in dry, open places in Southern India, chiefly in Mysore, Malabar, and Coimbatore. It occurs as a pale yellow, sometimes almost colourless, somewhat viscid, oily liquid, having a peculiar, faint, but persistent aromatic odour, and an unpleasant nauseous taste. Specific gravity, 0.973 to 0.984 (B.P., 0.975 to 0.980), (0.968 to 0.980 at 25°). Rotation, -13° to -21°. Saponification value, 5 to 15. The adulterations are, other varieties of santal oil, cedar wood oil, castor oil, gurjun balsam oil, copaiba oil, and not infrequently sesame, paraffin, and linseed oils. The valuation of the oil is best determined by acetylation, which converts the alcoholic constituents into acetic esters, and saponification of the acetylated oil, when from 92 to 98 per cent. santalol should be indicated, but not less than 90 per cent. Cedar wood oil gives an increase in the rotation, lowers the specific gravity, and diminishes the solubility; similar effects are produced by, copaiba and gurjun balsam oils, the former, however, usually diminishing the rotation; West Indian oil is dextrorotatory, and very difficultly soluble in alcohol; castor oil may be shown by its low specific gravity and high saponification value. Cedar wood oil is further shown by fractional distillation; under reduced pressure of 14 millimetres no distillate is obtained from pure oil below 150°, but with cedar wood oil 85 to 90 per cent. distils under these conditions between 125° and 155°. The high boiling-point is characteristic of oil of sandal wood.
Soluble in less than its own weight of alcohol; should form a clear solution with five or six times its volume of alcohol (70 per cent.) at 30°, not becoming turbid by further addition (absence of cedar wood oil and possibly other oils); the alcoholic solutions are acid to litmus. The solubility diminishes under the action of air and light.
Constituents.—The chief constituent of the oil is santalol, C15H24O, a mixture of two sesquiterpene alcohols with different boiling -points. The bulk of the oil consists of this mixture of alcohols (92 to 98 per cent.); an aldehyde, santalal, C15H24O, yielding santalenic acid on oxidation (which crystallises in thin laminae, melting at 76°), is also present, together with small quantities of esters and free acid.
Action and Uses.—Oil of sandal wood is given in the sub-acute stages of cystitis and gonorrhoea for its action as a disinfectant to the urinary passages during excretion; it is also used occasionally as an expectorant in chronic bronchitis. On account of its persistent taste the oil is usually administered in capsules, often in combination with other volatile oils or with formamine. Mixtures may be prepared by emulsifying the oil with one-half its weight of powdered gum acacia in the usual manner, or the sandal wood oil may be suspended with one-fourth its weight of tragacanth or half its volume of tincture of quillaia. Spiritus Santali Compositus is a favourite method of administration with some practitioners, and various compound liquors of oil of sandal wood with copaiba, cubebs, buchu, etc., are prepared. The purified alcohol of sandal wood oil, santalol, has been prepared for use in gonorrhoea under the names Arhéol, Gonal, and Gonoral. Santalol salicylate has been described under the name Santyl; it is free from the persistent taste of the oil, is said not to irritate the stomach or kidneys, and is resolved in the intestine into santalol and salicylic acid. Allosan is the allophanic ester of santalol; it is in white crystals which are tasteless and insoluble in water; dose, 1 gramme (15 grains). Thyresol is a methyl ester of santalol; it is a colourless liquid with a faint odour; insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. It is said not to yield santalol in the system; dose, 3 to 5 decimils (0.3 to 0.5 milliliters) (4 to 8 minims).
Dose.—¼ to 2 mils (5 to 30 minims).
- Liquor Olei Santali Flavi Compositus, C.F.—COMPOUND SOLUTION OF SANDAL OIL.
- Oil of sandal wood, 5; oil of cubebs, 2.5; oil of copaiba, 1.875: oil of pimento, 0.15; oil of cassia, 0.15; tincture of buchu, 15; concentrated infusion of buchu, 15; alcohol (95 per cent.), 20; solution of potassium hydroxide, 15; magnesium carbonate, 2.5; distilled water, 7.5. Boil the solution of potassium hydroxide and mix with the oils; let stand for two days, add the distilled water, and shake well (if not saponified boil with the addition of a little more solution of potassium hydroxide). Cool and add the tincture and infusion of buchu, the alcohol, and lastly the magnesium carbonate. Mix well, let stand for twenty-four hours, and filter.
- Liquor Santali Compositus, B.P.C.—COMPOUND SOLUTION OF SANDAL WOOD OIL.
- Oil of sandal wood, 5; spirit of cinnamon, 2.5; tincture of buchu, 17; tincture of cubebs, 15; alcohol, to 100. A stimulating disinfectant to the mucous membranes of the bladder and urethra, and is employed chiefly in subacute and chronic gonorrhoea. Large doses tend to cause renal irritation. Dose.—4 to 8 mils (1 to 2 fluid drachms).
- Mistura Olei Santali B.P.C.—SANDAL WOOD OIL MIXTURE.
- Each fluid ounce contains 15 minims of oil of sandal wood, 30 minims of mucilage of gum acacia, with a sufficient quantity of cinnamon water. This mixture is used generally in gonorrhoea and urinary catarrh. Dose.—15 to 30 mils (½ to 1 fluid ounce).
- Spiritus Santali Compositus, B.P.C.—COMPOUND SPIRIT OF SANTAL. Syn.—Mistura Santali Composita; Compound Santal Mixture.
- Each fluid drachm contains 18 minims of oil of sandal wood, 2 minims of oil of cassia, 4 minim of oil of pimento, with a sufficient quantity of alcohol. This spirit is used for gleet and gonorrhoea, being given with water or milk thrice daily. It corresponds to one form of Nisbet's Specific. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Spiritus Santali Compositus cum Morphina, B.P.C.—COMPOUND SPIRIT OF SANTAL WITH MORPHINE. Syn.—Mistura Santali Composita cum Morphina. Compound Santal Mixture with Morphine.
- Each fluid drachm contains 21 minims of oil of sandal wood, 1 ¼ minims of oil of cassia, 2 ½ minims of oil of pimento, 1/12 grain of morphine hydrochloride, with a sufficient quantity of alcohol. This spirit is used for similar purposes, and in the same way as Spiritus Santali Compositus. It corresponds to another form of Nisbet's Specific. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).