Viburnum, I.C.A. Black Haw.
Black haw is the dried bark of Viburnum prunifolium, Linn. (N.O. Caprifoliaceae), a shrub or small tree abundant in the Central and Eastern United States. Viburnum Prunifolium, U.S.P., consists of the dried bark of the root of Viburnum prunifolium, Linn., or of V. Lentago, Linn. Viburnum Opulus, U.S.P., consists of the dried bark of V. Opulus, Linn. Black haw occurs in channelled or sometimes quilled pieces seldom exceeding 4 millimetres in thickness. The outer surface of young bark is brownish and smooth, that of old bark dark brownish-grey, deeply fissured and scaly; the inner surface is whitish or brownish, and striated, or marked with elongated reticulations. Fracture short and granular. The transverse section exhibits a whitish inner portion containing conspicuous, scattered, comparatively large, yellowish groups of sclerenchyma, embedded in white parenchyma. Taste, bitter and astringent.
Constituents.—The drug contains the bitter glucoside viburnin, which is soluble in water, 2.5 per cent. of resin, tannin, and a non-volatile alkaloid which has not yet been isolated in a pure state; the bark is also said to contain valerianic acid. Petroleum spirit extracts about 11 per cent. of a viscous, dark brown substance, which is incompletely soluble in alcohol.
Action and Uses.—Black haw depresses the medulla and spinal cord without affecting the higher cerebral centres; therefore it depresses respiration and induces a large fall in blood pressure. It is used for its supposed sedative effects on the uterus, to prevent threatened abortion, and to control haemorrhage. Good results have followed its administration for asthma, dysmenorrhoea, and spasmodic affections of plain muscle. It is official in India and the Eastern and North American Colonies.
Dose.—1 to 2 grammes (15 to 30 grains).
- Elixir Viburni Prunifolii, B.P.C.—ELIXIR OF BLACK HAW. Syn.—Elixir of Viburnum Prunifolium. 1 (liquid extract) in 8.
- A uterine sedative, used to inhibit the uterine movements in early pregnancy. It is also employed in dysmenorrhoea. Dose.—2 to 8 mils (½ to 2 fluid drachms).
- Elixir Viburni Prunifolii Compositum, B.P.C.—COMPOUND ELIXIR OF BLACK HAW. Syn.—Compound Elixir of Viburnum Prunifolium.
- Liquid extract of black haw, 50; extract of hydrastis, 1.75; with flavouring agents and glycerin, to 100. This elixir acts in the same way as Elixir Viburni Prunifolii. Dose.—2 to 4 mils (½ to 1 fluid drachm).
- Extractum Viburni Prunifolii, B.P.C.—EXTRACT OF BLACK HAW. Syn.—Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium.
- May be given in pills or gelatin capsules, as a uterine sedative in dysmenorrhoea and threatened abortion. It is often combined with apiol, ergot, or hydrastis. Dose.—2 to 5 decigrams (3 to 8 grains).
- Extractum Viburni Prunifolii Liquidum, I.C.A.—LIQUID EXTRACT OF BLACK HAW. Syn.—Liquid Extract of Viburnum Prunifolium.
- Black haw, in No. 60 powder, 100; alcohol (70 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Add 40 of the alcohol to the powdered drug, pack in a percolator, saturate the mass with alcohol, allow to macerate for forty-eight hours, then exhaust by percolation. Reserve the first 85 of percolate, distil off most of the alcohol from the subsequent percolate, evaporate the residue to a soft extract, dissolve this in the reserved percolate, and add sufficient of the alcohol to make up to the required volume. Liquid extract of black haw is official in India, the Eastern Colonies, and the North American Colonies. It may conveniently be given as Elixir Viburni Prunifolii Compositum. Dose.—4 to 8 mils (1 to 2 fluid drachms).
- Fluidextractum Viburni Prunifolii, U.S.P.—FLUIDEXTRACT OF VIBURNUM PRUNIFOLIUM.
- Viburnum prunifolium, in No. 40 powder, 100; alcohol (64 per cent.), sufficient to produce 100. Average dose.—2 mils (30 minims).