Pterocarpus Marsupium. Kino.

Description: Natural Order, Leguminosae. The article used under the name of Kino is a product from a variety of plants, of which the one here named is the principal one; and is a lofty tree in the high grounds of Hindostan; but other genera and species evidently yield almost identically the same product. It is obtained by making incisions in the bark, catching the red sap, and drying it in the sun. It comes to market in small, angular, brittle and shining pieces, of a very dark brownish-red color, in the mass appearing reddish-black, without smell, and of a strong astringent and not unpleasant taste. Water dissolves it almost perfectly, showing it not to be a resin; alcohol also acts freely on it, and the tincture does not cause a precipitate on the addition of water, facts which show it to be neither a resin nor a gum. When dissolved in boiling water, it deposits a blood-red substance on cooling; and a cold filtered solution does the same after long exposure to the air. Alkalies increase its solubility, but destroy its astringency. From these data, the present opinion is that this so-called gum consists mainly of tannic and kinic acids, with extractive and a red coloring matter, and a trace of resinous material. Other qualities, obtained from the West Indies and South America, are slightly different in tint, but of qualities so nearly similar as to make distinctions of little moment.

Properties and Uses: This article is a very pure and powerful astringent, not intensely drying; and soothing and somewhat antiseptic in character. The principal use made of it, is in excessive mucous discharges not attended with inflammation, as in sub-acute dysentery, diarrhea, and leucorrhea; and in these stages of bowel complaints, and cases of a rather passive character, it is an agent of much service, especially combined with chalk or magnesia. Without causing that extreme dryness of mucous surfaces which follows the use of many astringents, it yet checks these discharges with much positiveness, and at the same time affords considerable relief to the uneasiness and tormina. Prof. Z. Hussey first called my attention to the soothing action of this agent; and prescribed its whisky tincture in my own person for swelling of the sublingual glands, with an offensively-glutinous discharge (as of burning saliva) and extreme pain, with the most prompt and happy effects. I have several times found it give much relief in aching gums and teeth arising from exposure. As a local application, it dries exhaustive discharges, arrests hemorrhage, and may be used in leucorrhea and epistaxsis; and has enjoyed a good reputation for internal use for bleeding gums, and also in uterine and pulmonary hemorrhage, for which it should be combined with stimulants. Many times it is abused by being prescribed for acute dysentery. Dose of the powder, from five to fifteen or more grains, every six, four, or three hours. The most common method of exhibition is by making an infusion with two drachms of kino and eight fluid ounces of boiling water, and straining when cold; of which the dose may be from a fluid drachm to a fluid ounce. The addition of half a drachm of myrica bark and ten grains of capsicum to this, makes a powerful preparation for uterine hemorrhage; or pimento and cinnamon may be employed with kino for mild hemorrhages and painful diarrhea. The most serviceable, though not the officinal, tincture is made with two drachms of kino and eight fluid ounces of rye or bourbon whisky. The officinal tincture mixes six drachms of kino with an equal bulk of sand, and passes eight fluid ounces of diluted alcohol by percolation. The latter preparation slowly gelatinizes and loses its astringency, through changes not understood.

PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS, red sounders or red sandal, is another species of the Kino genus, growing in Ceylon and the adjacent continent. The wood is a beautiful red, and usually comes to market as chips. It is much used in dyeing; and though formerly in much repute as a remedy for dysentery and menstrual derangements, is now known to be of little worth as a medicine, and is scarcely put to any use beyond employing its tincture on diluted alcohol to color liniments, lavender compound, and some other preparations.

The Physiomedical Dispensatory, 1869, was written by William Cook, M.D.
It was scanned by Paul Bergner at