Hydrastis: Uses of Hydrastine - References.

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Shoemaker: Hydrastis and Hydrastine Hydrochlorate in Diseases of the Skin - Langdon: Action of Hydrastine Hydrochlorate on the Genito-Urinary Mucous Membranes - Pharmaceutical and Medical References - Botanical References

HYDRASTIS AND HYDRASTINE HYDROCHLORATE IN DISEASES OF THE SKIN.—(Written for this publication by Dr. John V. Shoemaker, of the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia).—Hydrastis is a valuable drug in diseases of the skin, both internally and as a topical application. It is especially useful as a stomachic tonic, and as a hepatic stimulant in cutaneous affections depending upon gastro-intestinal disorders.

It is best administered in the form of the fluid extract of hydrastis which Prof. Roberts Bartholow has shown to contain all the constituents of the drug and is the preferable preparation to use. In seborrhoea-sicca or oleosa, which frequently develops from some alimentary trouble, the scaly, reddened or greasy state of the skin may lessen or disappear by the use of ten or twenty drops of the fluid extract of hydrastis three times daily. The red or white of papules black points or pustules of acne or the enlargement of the blood vessels and tissue of acne-rosacea due to the same cause may alone be relieved or cured by the internal administration of hydrastis. It is an excellent remedy to use in scrofulous diseases of the skin, in patients having feeble digestion, loss of flesh and enlarged glands, with or without unhealthy ulcers. In cases of this nature it will stimulate the appetite, lessen the involvement of the skin and assist the action of local medication in removing the disease. It has also acted in a happy manner upon some cases of lupus, sycosis, boils, carbuncles and ulcers, on which the local condition was largely due to a lack of nutrition of the system. Eczema which is so often depending upon debility or some gastro-intestional disorder, may at times be greatly relieved or cured by free doses of the fluid extract of hydrastis.

Children suffering with the pustular form of this disease, known as eczema impetiginodes or milk crust, small doses of the fluid extract from one to five drops in mucilage or glycerine three times daily increases the digestive power, lessens the formation of pus, and has a powerful tonic action upon the previously enfeebled system. In broken down syphilitic subjects, especially in those in whom the alimentary canal is weak and irritable, often from alcoholic excess, or from the use of too much mercury or one of the iodides, the use of hydrastis is attended with most marked and beneficial results.

Hydrastis may be employed alone internally or in some cases its conjoined internal and external use will at times be found most efficacious. The range of usefulness, however, as a topical application, is even greater than from its internal administration. The fluid extract, which is the preparation generally employed for local use, has both a stimulant and an astringent action on the integument which is well marked when the skin is denuded or inflamed. It may be used undiluted, or what is even better, diluted one-half or one-third with water, oil, mucilage, or glycerine. Inflammatory affections of the mucous membrane, especially stomatitis, syphilitic lesions, and eczema are greatly benefited or even at times removed by the application of the fluid extract of hydrastis. The fissured form of the latter diseases which occurs around the mucous outlets, as on the lips and about the anus, or on the flexor surfaces and between the fingers and toes are sometimes rapidly improved by its use. It also exerts a most efficacious action or lessens the inflammation and thickening in chronic eczema, whether involving the parts just referred to or other regions. Abrasions, sinuses, ulcers and granulations are greatly improved by the application of this remedy.

While the use of the fluid extract of hydrastis has been attended with much benefit in many of the diseases just cited yet its employment has been open to a very great objection from the staining which follows everything with which it comes in contact. This staining power which is usually imparted to the clothes of patients, is not easily removed even by washing and the unpleasant effect that follows the employment of this drug would almost entirely preclude its adoption in private practice, when so many other, elegant, cleanly and efficacious preparations are now constantly on hand for use. Fortunately, however, the objection referred to has been entirely overcome by the recent investigations of Prof. Bartholow, who has demonstrated the active principle of the drug hydrastine, which can be combined to form hydrastine hydrochlorate, which has all the physiological effect of the former drug. Further, the salt so formed not only possesses all the good qualities for cutaneous application, claimed for hydrastis, but it is also perfectly free from the staining qualities of the latter drug.

Hydrastine Hydrochlorate.—This salt occurs as a fine white powder slightly tinged with yellow, inodorous but very bitter and soluble in water, alcohol, oils and fats. Its color, its odorless character, and its great solubility furnishes a remedy of unusual advantage for topical application in diseases of the skin.

During a short experience with this preparation I have found it most useful mixed with water, alcohol or fat in hyperiodrosis, seborrhoea, acne, eczema and in ulcers. Thus from five to twenty grains of hydrastine hydrochlorate to the ounce of alcohol, has a most beneficial effect on excessive secretion which may occur in the axillary or inguinal regions, or on the palmar and plantar surfaces. This same combination acts well in seborrhoea-sicca, especially of the scalp, attended with loss of hair, the stimulant and astringent action of the solution lessening or relieving the irritability of the follicles and glands of the part. The papules and black spots of acne yield sometimes very rapid to the application of the alcoholic solution of hydrastine hydrochlorate. Acne rosacea and seborrhoea oleosa or the greasy state of the skin so often seen in the face of young women have in several instances improved much on an application of an aqueous solution of this drug, or a mixture of the salts with a fatty substance in the proportion of from five to twenty grains to the ounce.

The ointment of hydrastine hydrochlorate, the salt being incorporated in the fat in from ten to sixty grains to the ounce, has proved a most excellent application in some cases of subacute and chronic eczema; the thickened and irritable state of the skin in the latter condition subsiding at times very rapidly on its application. It has also been serviceable in some scrofulous and varicose ulcers used in the form of an ointment. The good results so far realized from the topical application of hydrastine hydrochlorate may be illustrated by the following cases in which it has been employed in the clinical service of the Philadelphia Hospital for Skin Diseases.

Acne.—Robert T. aet 17. Forehead, cheeks and chin covered with small red papules associated with black points-acne punctata-and papulo-pustules, digestion feeble, bowels torpid. Ten drop doses of the fluid extract of hydrastis were given three times daily before meals and the face was sponged night and morning with an aqueous solution of hydrastine hydrochlorate containing ten grains of the salt to the ounce. In ten days the patient showed signs of improvement, and in six weeks after being placed under treatment he was discharged cured.

Eczema of the Face.—Anna B. aet 3. Scalp and face covered with thick crusts, which upon removal exposed red raw and infiltrated patches, digestion poor, constipation at times followed with diarrhoea, Half a drop increased to a drop of the fluid extract of hydrastis was administered in milk three times daily with the effect, in course of twelve days, of improving the child's general condition and lessen. ing somewhat the local inflammation. The red and infiltrated patches still remained stubborn, notwithstanding the use of the ordinary ointments. At the end of the second week of the constitutional treatment, one ounce of lard with twenty grains of hydrastine hydrochlorate was used freely over the parts. The red and thickened patches gradually disappeared and in two weeks time from the beginning of the topical application only a slightly desquamating surface remained.

Eczema of the Anus.—James T. aet 32. Had been under treatment at various times with only temporary relief. The margins around the anus was thickened and fissured, many of which extended well into the mucous membrane of the parts. No apparent exciting cause could be detected. The application of the ointment of hydrastine hydrochlorate twenty grains of the salt to the ounce being employed was followed by relief within a few days. Several weeks have now passed and the patient having failed to report has doubtless obtained permanent relief.

Eczema of the Ears.—Mary W. aet 27. The right and left ears were red, somewhat thickened and covered with scales. The skin back of each pinna was in a similar condition with several fissures at their connection with the side of the head. The inflammation of the ears had originally been excited by a dye, and had resisted the usual local remedies. The ointment of hydrastine hydrochlorate, of the same strength as mentioned in the previous case, was used with good effect within six days. The cars in about three weeks had acquired their natural size. The fissures healed quickly, and when last seen, about ten days ago, only a little roughness of the integument was apparent.

Eczema of the Feet.—Mrs. G. aet 36. The dorsal surface of both feet were red, slightly infiltrated, especially about the toes, between which were some well marked fissures. The disease had been in existence for some time and had been caused by using some remedy to remove corns from the feet. At first, a five, and afterward, a ten per cent. ointment of hydrastine hydrochlorate was used which completely removed the disease in from five to six weeks time.

Seborrhoea Sicca of the Scalp.—Wm. S. aet 22. The scalp was caked over with a thick sebaceous secretion, the hair being dry and lustreless. The disease had followed after typhoid fever, the patient at the time of examination was weak and poorly nourished. Cod liver oil in large doses soon improved the systemic condition, but the local trouble continued the same. The parts were sponged once daily with an alcoholic solution of hydrastine hydrochlorate, thirty grains of the salt being employed to the ounce with the effect of removing within eight or ten days all the crusts and scales, and after some three weeks topical application but a slight evidence of the disease existed.

Inflammation of the hair follicles of the Beard.—Thomas R. aet 24. The upper lip was the seat of many pustules and papules, especially around the margin of the anterior nares. Two grain doses of the iron iodide was administered and a ten per cent. hydrastine hydrochlorate ointment applied to the parts, brought relief within six or eight days, the patient then disappeared and has not since reported.

Seborrhoea Oleosa.—Maggie C. aet 19. Forehead, cheeks and nose slightly red and very greasy. Many of the follicles of the parts were plugged with comedones, and the skin in patches presented even a dirty hue. A uterine cause which excited the disease had been removed by one of the physicians at a general hospital, but the local condition, although lessened by the previous treatment, continued annoying. An aqueous solution of first five and afterward twenty grains of hydrastine hydrochlorate to the ounce lessened the poured out oily fluid and improved decidedly the deformity of the skin in about two weeks time. Patient has since ceased her visits to the hospital and perhaps has concluded she is now cured.

Hyperidrosis.—Mrs. L. aet 39. Applied for. the relief of excessive sweating from the arm pits, which had been very annoying for some time. Health good and local trouble could not be traced to any constitutional cause. The frequent use of an aqueous solution containing thirty grains of hydrastine hydrochlorate to the ounce proved an effective application within a few weeks time.

Ulcers.—Carrie H. aet 13. Had two small ulcers, one on the right and the other on the left side beneath the inferior maxillary from broken drown lymphatic glands. The floor and margins of the ulcers were covered with indolent granulations and with an unhealthy and scanty pus. Constitutional treatment improved without removing the ulcers. A ten increased to a twenty per cent. hydrastine hydrochlorate ointment healed them completely in a little over one month's time.

Hydrastine hydrochlorate from the cases just cited and others now improving under its use will no doubt prove a valuable topical application, especially in diseases of the skin. Its stimulant and astringent properties may make it available, not only in the affections alluded to, but also in many others. From present experience it is better adapted for use in diseases in which the inflammation is not too active, more particularly in the subacute and chronic stages. Precautions should be exercised in using it, on an acute eruption and if employed the solution or ointment should be very weak otherwise the active stimulant and astringent effect of the salt may increase instead of diminish the disease. It is better and much more effective even in those diseases in which it is indicated not to use too strong a solution or ointment in beginning the application to the skin.

ACTION OF HYDRASTINE HYDROCHLORATE ON THE GENITO-URINARY MUCOUS MEMBRANES—(Written for this publication by Prof. F. W. LANGDON, M. D., of the Miami Medical College of Cincinnati).—Prominent amongst the features which have characterized the progress of modern medicine are those improvements in pharmaceutical chemistry whereby we are enabled to obtain, in concentrated form, the active principles of various vegetable remedies, such as morphine, atropine, quinine, strychnine, piperine, theine, cocaine, etc. We have another instance of this dominion of mind over matter in the preparation which forms the subject of the present observations, viz: The Hydrochlorate of Hydrastine, prepared from the white alkaloid of the well-known plant, Hydrastis canadensis.

At the request of the Messrs. Lloyd, I have instituted a series of clinical experiments with this preparation, somewhat limited as regards time and number, but sufficient to demonstrate the fact that the drug in this form possesses the power of influencing favorably certain morbid conditions of the secreting structures of the male urethra. I have used the drug, as an injection only, in the strength of one-half grain to three grains to the ounce of distilled water.

To sum up, briefly, the results of this series of observations, we may classify the cases under three heads, namely:

1.—Acute Gonorrhoea. Here the use of an injection containing one to two grains to the ounce, after the subsidence of the first acute symptoms, swelling, pain, etc., arrested the discharge in a few days in several cases. This, however, as is well known, is so common a result of the use of many other remedies (and even, at times, occurs spontaneously, if patients are to be believed) that its significance may readily be overestimated. The fact, however, that it has been uniformly successful in even a small number of cases (six) is worthy of note.

2.—Gleet dependent on stricture or localized ulceration. Here, as might be expected, its use was attended by unsatisfactory results, as would be any measures short of treating the actual lesion. While a slight improvement seemed to follow its use in some of these cases, in others it exerted a decidedly irritant action, even in the strength of one grain to the ounce.

3.—Gleet dependent on a relaxed condition of the urethral mucous membrane purely functional; the discharge a mere weeping, almost watery in character-a true catarrh, in fact. It is in these cases that the drug seems to exert a most favorable influence, producing immediate improvement and final cure in troublesome cases which had resisted the variety of men and measures to which they are usually subjected. Its use, however, requires caution as regards the strength of solution. While an injection of two to three grains to the ounce of distilled water produces the best results in some, others manifest an immediate increase of irritation and discharge upon using even a one-grain solution; so that, to begin with, a half-grain solution is sufficient for most cases, to be gradually increased according to indications.

The drug certainly deserves further attention at the hands of the profession.


1793.—Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, p. 224. Hydrastis as an Indian dye.
1798.—Collections Towards a Materia Medica of the United States, B. S. Barton, Part I., p. 9. Hydrastis.
1804.—Ibid, Part III., p. 13. Hydrastis.
1818.—Coxe's American Dispensatory, p. 298 (and other editions). Hydrastis.
1820.—House Surgeon and Physician, Hand, New Haven, p. 227. Hydrastis.
1824 to 1826.—Gmelin's Chemistry, Vol. XVII., pp. 185 to 197. Berberine and Salts.
1826.—Materia Medica of the United States, Zollickoffer, pp. 89, 109. Hydrastis.
1828.—Medical Flora of the United States, Rafinesque, Vol. I., p. 251. Hydrastis.
1829.—Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacy, Edwards and Vavasseur, p. 151. Hydrastis.
1830.—The Botanic Physician, Elisha Smith, p. 462. Hydrastis
1830.—Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, Lindley, p. 7. Hydrastis.
1830.—Pharmacopoeia of the United States (2d New York edition), p. 39. Hydrastis.
1832.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 173. Berberine
1832.—Improved System of Botanic Medicine (1st edition). Howard, p. 327 (and other editions, 1852, illustrated with Rafinesque's figure). Hydrastis.
1833.—Prodome of a Work to Aid the Teaching of the Vegetable Materia Medica, W. P. C. Barton, p. 75. Hydrastis.
1833.—The Thomsonian Recorder, Vol. I., p. 397. Hydrastis.
1833.—The American Practice of Medicine, Vol. III, Beach, p. 99 (illustrated with Rafinesque's figure.) Hydrastis.
1833.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 201. Hydrastis.
1834.—United States Dispensatory, 2d edition, p. 1087 (and subsequent editions). Hydrastis.
1834.—The Thomsonian Recorder, Vol. II., p. 313. Hydrastis.
1834.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 285. Hydrastis.
1835.—The Thomsonian Recorder, Vol. III., p. 108. Hydrastis.
1835.—Sanborn's Medical Botany, p. 63 Hydrastis.
1836.—Improved System of Botanic Medicine, 3d edition, Howard, p. 225. Hydrastis.
1838.—Botanico-Medical Recorder, Vol. VI., p. 192 (illustrated with Rafinesque's figure, poor). Hydrastis.
1838.—Flora Medica, Lindley, p. 3. Hydrastis.
1841.—The Thomsonian Materia Medica, Samuel Thomson, pp. 613, 7-5 (and other editions). Hydrastis.
1841.—New Remedies, Dunglison, p. 91 (and subsequent editions). Berberine.
1831.—Botanic Medical Reformer, Vol. I., p. 207. Hydrastis.
1841.—The American Vegetable Practice, Mattson, p. 214, Strong's figure copied. Hydrastis.
1842.—A Treatise on the Botanic Theory and Practice of Medicine, Worthy, p. 590 Hydrastis.
1844.—The Sick Man's Friend, Sanborn, p. 59. Hydrastis.
1845.—The Practice of Medicine on Thomsonian Principles, Comfort, p. 465. Hydrastis.
1847.—The American Practice Condensed, or the Family Physician, Beach, p. 657. Hydrastis.
1847.—The Family Flora and Materia Medica Botanica, Good, Plate 69, Strong's figure. Hydrastis.
1847.—Medical Botany, Griffith, p. 82, Rafinesque's figure. Hydrastis.
1847.—The Botanico-Medical Reference-Book, Biggs, p, 522. Hydrastis.
1848.—American Journal of Pharmacy.
1848.—Catalogue of the Medicinal Plants of New York State, Lee, p. 7. Hydrastis.
1849.—Indigenous Medicinal Plants of South Carolina, Porcher, Am. Med. Assoc. Rep., p. 685. Hydrastis.
1849.—Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Kost, p. 448. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1850.—Catalogue of the Medicinal Plants of the United States, Clapp, pp 700, 722 (Am. Med. Soc. Rep,, 1850-51). Hydrastis.
1850.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 301.
1850.—General Therapeutics and Materia Medica, Dunglison, p. 43 (and other editions). Hydrastis.
1850.—The Physo-Medical Recorder and Surgical Journal, Stockwell, p. 13. Hydrastis.
1851.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 112. Hydrastis, Hydrastine.
1852.—A Dictionary of Medical Science, Dunglison, p. 45o. Hydrastis.
1852.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 300, Muriate of Berberine; 147, 148, Hydrastis.
1852.—The Eclectic Dispensatory of the United States of America, King and Newton, p. 213 (and other editions), Hydrastis; p. 214, Berberine.
1853.—Principles of Scientific Botany, Bickley, p, 192 (illustrated with Strong's figure). Hydrastis and Berberine.
1853.—Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Wittstein (Darby), p. 203. Berberine Hydrochlorate.
1854.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 264. Berberine.
1855.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 567. Berberine.
1855.—Positive Medical Agents, Grover Coe, p. 101. Berberine.
1856.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 76.
1857.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 62. Berberine (not from Hydrastis).
1858.—The College Journal, Cincinnati, p. 485. Hydrastis.
1858.—The Medicinal Plants of Michigan, Stearns, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc., p. 264. Hydrastis.
1859.—Domestic Medicine, Kost, p. 497 (illustrated with Rafinesque's figure). Hydrastis.
1859.—Eclectic Medical Journal, p. 441. Berberine.
1860.—The Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 443. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1860.—The Journal of Materia Medica, Bates & Tilden, p. 125. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1860.—The Pharmacopoeia of the United States, p. 59. Hydrastis.
1861.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 257. Berberine.
1862.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, pp. 540, 546. Hydrastis, Berberine, Hydrastine.
1862.—The Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 244. Berberine, Hydrastine.
1862.—The American Journal of Pharmacy, pp. 141, 308, 495. Berberine.
1862.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association pp. 137, 164. Berberine Sulphate and Berberine.
1863.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, p. 464, Berberine; p. 516, Berberine and Hydrastine.
1863.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 433, 457. Berberine and Hydrastine.
1863.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 71. Hydrastis.
1863.—Druggists' Circular, p. 24. Hydrastine.
1863.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, pp. 66 and 67. Berberine and Hydrastine,
1864.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 161. Berberine.
1865.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 134. Hydrastine.
1865.—American Eclectic Materia Medica, Hollemback, p. 203. Hydrastis. (Illustrated with Rafinesque's figure).
1865.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 528. Hydrastis.
1866.—Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Jones & Scudder, Cincinnati, p. 390, Hydrastis; p. 393, Berberine.
1867.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 92. Hydrastis (Adulterant of Serpentaria).
1868.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 263. Berberine (not from Hydrastis).
1869.—Journal of Materia Medica (Bates & Tilden), pp. 129 and 255. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1870.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 155. Hydrastis and Berberine Sulphate.
1870.—Pharmacopoeia of the United States, 5th revision, pp. 33, 161. Hydrastis.
1871.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 496. Hydrastis.
1871.—Journal of Materia Medica, Bates & Tilden, p. 146. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1872.—Supplement to Journal of Materia Medica, Tilden & CO., p. 51. Hydrastis.
1873.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 573. Phosphate of Berberine.
1873.—Druggists' Circular and Chemical Gazette, p. 73. Hydrastis, Berberine, Hydrastine.
1873.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 232. Third Alkaloid.
1873.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 247, Third Alkaloid.
1873.—New Remedies, New York, p. 431. Hydrastis, Hydrastine, Berberine; p. 524, Third Alkaloid.
1873.—Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science, Sweringen, pp. 216 and 217. Hydrastis, Berberine, and Hydrastine.
1874.—Treatise on Pharmacy, Parish, 4th edition (and other editions), pp. 474, 479, 480, 754, Berberine p. 474, Hydrastis; p. 754, Hydrastine.
1875.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, P, 467. Third Alkaloid.
1875.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., N. Y., p. 20. Berberine.
1875.—Druggists' Circular, p. 159, Hydrastine.
1875.—Journal of Materia Medica, Bates & Tilden, p. 56. Berberine.
1875.—Proceedings of American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 426. Test for Berberine.
1875.—American Journal of Pharmacy, pp. 480, 574. Third Alkaloid of Hydrastis.
1876.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 226, Hydrastis; p. 386, Berberine and Hydrastine.
1876.—The Journal of Materia Medica, Bates & Tilden, p. 122, Berberine; p. 293, Hydrastis.
1877.—American Pharmaceutical Association, pp. 156, 405. Third Alkaloid, Berberine and Hydrastine.
1877.—American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 97. Third Alkaloid Berberine and Hydrastine.
1877.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 339, Hypophosphite of Berberine; p. 472, Phosphate of Berberine.
1877.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., p. 238. Hypophosphite of Berberine).
1877.—Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Goss, pp. 87, 347, 88. Berberine Sulphate and Muriate.
1877.—The Pocket Formulary, Beasley, p. 187. Berberine.
1877.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, p. 87, Hypophosphite of Berberine; p. 567, Phosphate of Berberine.
1878.—Organic Constituents of Plants, Wittstein (Von Mueller), p. 26. Hydrastis and Berberine.
1878.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, p. 567. Phosphate of Berberine.
1878.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 599, Hypophosphite of Berberine; p. 800, Salts of Berberine, Oil and Resin of Hydrastis, Berberine and Hydrastine.
1878.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 470. Berbe. rine, Hydrastine, Third Alkaloid.
1878.—The United States Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Hydrastis.
1878.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., New York, p. 226, Phosphate of Berberine; p. 361, Berberine and Hydrastine.
1878.—Dispensatory and Pharmacopoeia of North America and Great Britain, p. 175; Berberine, p. 176.
1879.—National Dispensatory, p. 729 (and subsequent editions). Hydrastis, Berberine, Hydrastine, Third Alkaloid.
1879.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, p. 897. Phosphate of Berberine.
1879.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 196.
1879.—Eclectic Medical Journal, Cincinnati, p. 174. Hydrastine.
1879.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., p. 19.
1819.—Students' Pocket Medical Lexicon, Longley, p. 38, Berberine; p. 137, Hydrastine and Hydrastis.
1879.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, p. 125, Berberine and Hydrastine; p. 163, Berberine.
1880.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., p. 375,
1880.—Preliminary Report on Revision of U. S. Pharmacopoeia, p. 51.
1880 and 1881.—British Medical Journal.
1881.—New Remedies, Wm. Wood & Co., p. 183, Hydrastis and Berberine.
1881.—Medical Formulary, Laurence Johnson, pp. 220, 221, Hydrastis; pp. 221, 222, Berberine Muriate and Sulphate; p. 221, Hydrastine.
1881.—Lancet and Clinic.
1881.—American Journal of Pharmacy, p. 138. Berberine and Hydrastine.
1881.—Proceedings American Pharmaceutical Association, p. 345. Hydrastine and Berberine.
1882.—United States Pharmacopoeia, sixth revision, pp. 181, 125.
1882.—American Pharmacist, p. 290.
1882.—Pharmacopoeia of the United States, p. 181.
1882.—Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, p. 318. Berberine and Thymol.
1882.—American Practice of Medicine, Goss, pp. 69, 148, 153, 158, 182, 203, 216, 243, 249, 495, 572, 579, 596. Hydrastis and Berberine Salts.
1882.—Dictionary of Economic Plants, Smith, London, p. 446. Hydrastis.
1882.—Druggists' Circular, p. 51.
1884.—Companion to the Pharmacopoeia, Oldberg and Wall, p. 579. Hydrastis, Berberine, and Third Alkaloid.
1884.—Plant Analysis, Dragendorff, pp. 49, 62, 258. Berberine.
1884.—Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Roberts Bartholow, p. 165 (and other editions). Hydrastis and Alkaloids.

BOTANICAL REFERENCES TO HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS LINNAEUS. [In making these references, care has been taken to capitalize the specific name only when capitalized in the original work. A dash after the name indicates that no authority is given for it.]

1759.—Warneria canadensis—Miller, Description of the figures of plants adapted to the Gardener's Dictionary, p. 130. Illustrated with a good plate of the flowering and fruiting plant.
1762.—Hydrastis Canadensis.—Linnaeus, Species Plantarum, 2d edition, Vol. I., p. 784; 3d edition, 1764, Vol. I., p. 784.
1789.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Aiton, Hortus Kewensis, 1st edition, Vol. II., p. 273; 2d edition, 1811, Vol. III., p. 362.
1789.—Hydrastis canadensis, Linn.—Lamarck, Encyclopédie méthodique Botanique, Vol. III., p. 151.
1799.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Willdenow, Species Plantarum of Linnaeus, 4th edition, Vol. II., Part II., p. 1339.
1803.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Michaux, Flora Boreali-Americana, Vol. I., p. 317.
1805.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—St. Hilaire, Exposition des Families Naturelles, Vol. I., p. 486.
1807.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Persoon, Synopsis Plantarum, Vol. I I., p. 107.
1814.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Pursh, Flora Americae Septentrionalis, Vol. II., p. 389.
1815.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Barton, Florae Philadelphicae prodromus, p. 61.
1817.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Faton, Manual of Botany of Northern and Middle States, 1st edition, p.—; 2d edition, 1818, p. 276; 3d edition, 1822, p. 210; 4th edition, 1824, p. 325; 5th edition, 1829, p. 248; 6th edition, 1833, Part II., p. 179; 7th edition, 1836, p.—.
1818.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—DeCandolle, Systema Naturale Regni Vegetabilis, Vol. I., p. 218.
1818.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Nuttall,Genera of North American Plants, Vol. II., p. 21.
1818.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Barton, Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, Vol. II., p. 17. Illustrated with a good colored engraving of the Plant (inaccurately showing, how. ever, an expanded flower with sepals); also with the outline of a mature leaf and parts of the flower.
1818.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Muehlenberg, Catalogue Plants Americae Septentrionalis, 2d edition, p. 57.
1818.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Barton, Compendium Flora: Philadelphicae, Vol. II., p. 22.
1824.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—De Candolle, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis, Vol. I., p. 23.
1824.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Elliott, Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, Vol. II., p. 55.
1825.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Rees, Cyclopaedia, Vol. XIX. (date doubtful, work not paged or dated).
1826.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Torrey, Compendium of the Flora of Northern and Middle States, p. 224.
1828.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Rafinesque, Medical Flora of North America, Vol. I., p. 251. Illustrated with a plate (No. 51) of the flowering plant (flowers inaccurate).
1830.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Hooker, Botanical Magazine, Vol. LVII. (Vol. IV., new series), No. 3019. Illustrated with a good colored plate showing a flowering plant and dissections of the flower.
1831.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Don, Dichlamydeous Plants, Vol. I., p. 22. Illustrated with a small, inaccurate cut (fig. 7) of plant and fruit,
1833.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Hooker, Botanical Magazine, Vol. LX. (Vol. VII., new series), No. 3232. Illustrated with a good colored plate of fruiting plant, with root and dissections of the fruit.
1833.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Beck, Plants of the Northern and Middle States, p. 7.
1837.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Darlington, Flora Cestrica, 2d edition, p. 336; 3d edition, 1853, Part II., p. 7.
1838.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Torrey and Gray, Flora of North America, Vol. I., p. 40.
1838.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Lindley, Flora Medica, p. 3.
1839.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Spach, Histoire naturelle des végétaux, Vol. VII., p. 384.
1840.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Eaton and Wright, North American Botany, p. 276.
1843.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Torrey, Flora of the State of New York, Vol. I., p. 26.
1843.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Dietrich, Synopsis Plantarum, Vol. III., p. 338.
1845.—Hydrastis Canadensis——.—Wood, Class-Book of Botany, 1st edition, Part II., p. 21; 2d edition, 1847, p. 148; 3d edition, 18—, p. 212.
1848.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Gray, Manual of Botany of the Northern United States, 1st edition, p. 15; 2d edition, 1856, p. 14; same, 3d and 4th editions; 5th edition, 1867, p. 47.
1849.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Gray, Genera of Plants of the United States, Vol. I., p. 48. Illustrated with a lithographic plate (No. 18) showing a flowering plant and dissections of the flower and fruit.
1849.—Hydrastis canadensis——.—Strong, American Flora, Vol. III., p. 174. Illustrated with a colored plate of the fruiting plant, good except the root, which is inaccurate.
1860.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Chapman, Flora of the Southern United States, p. ii.
1866.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Baillon, Histoire des plantes, Vol. I., p. 87. Illustrated with a longitudinal section of the carpel (fig. 88)—(English translation by Hartog, 1871, Vol. I., p. 49).
1866.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Darby, Botany of the Southern States, p. 210.
1869.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Lawson, Ranunculaceae of the Dominion of Canada, p. 51.
1870.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Wood, The American Botanist and Florist, p. 23.
1880.—Hydrastis canadensis Linn.—Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants, Vol. I., No. 1. Illustrated with a good colored plate (No. 1) of a flowering plant and parts of flower and fruit, also outline of mature leaf.
1884.—Hydrastis Canadensis Linn.—Millspaugh, American Medicinal Plants, No. 9. Illustrated with a colored lithographic plate of the plant.

Drugs and Medicines of North America, 1884-1887, was written by John Uri Lloyd and Curtis G. Lloyd.