Examination Questions of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.

Junior Examination.—The examinations of the Junior students during the past term were on the following subjects:

First Junior Examination.


A—(1) Write a short composition on the Metric System, giving as complete an account as you are able to, upon half a page of the examination paper.
(2) Give the equivalents of the following metric quantities in ordinary or old form weights and measures: 5 Kg.; 1774.4 c.c.; 29.573 c.c; ½ grain; 1/100 grain.
(3) How many grains are there in a fluid ounce of water at 15.6 C. (60° F.); in an imperial fluid ounce of water; in an avoirdupois ounce; in a troy ounce?

B—Define vaporization, evaporation, and distillation, and state the principle which governs the rapidity of the evaporation of liquids at or above the boiling point and below the boiling point.


C—(1) Definie the term specific gravity—as applied to solids and liquids.
(2) Give two methods for the determination of the specific gravity of a solid. Two methods for the specific gravity of a liquid.

D—(1) What is meant by "latent heat of fusion?" Give an example of practical utilization of this principle.
(2) What effect has pressure upon the boiling point of a liquid? Give an example of a practical utilization of boiling under reduced pressure.


(1) Define an adventitious root.
(2) Name a common plant that bears adventitious roots.
(3) In what group of plants are the roots destitute of a radial structure?
(4) In what group of plants do we usually find stems, leaves and hairs, but no roots?
(5) What are the chief uses of roots?

(6) What names are applied respectively to such a stem as the potato, to the flowering stem of the dandelion, and to the scaly unbranching stem of the palm?
(7) In what groups of plants do we find a cambium zone in the stem?
(8) What organs of vegetation are necessarily present in a bulb?
(9) What is a supernumerary bud?
(10) Define a scandent stem.

Second Junior Examination.


A—(1) In what respects does colation differ from filtration? Describe the methods and materials employed by pharmacists in both processes.
(2) How are mixtures of oil and water separated? Draw a sketch illustrating the appa- ratus used in the separation.

(1) What is the object of requiring perfect rest for solutions designed for crystallization, and why are such solutions sometimes agitated during the cooling process?
(2) Of what use are nuclei in effecting crystallization?
(3) What is water of crystallization?
(4) Define efflorescence and deliquescence.


C—(1) State the difference between a binary and a ternary molecule, and give examples of each.
(2) What is a haloid acid? An oxygen acid? Give examples of each.
(3) Write in symbols the formulas of the following: Potassium bromide, magnesium oxide, mercurous chloride, mercuric chloride, carbon disulphide, phosphorous trichloride, hypochlorous oxide, sulphuric acid.

D—(1) Write two reactions for the preparation of hydrogen.
(2) Upon what does the reducing action of hydrogen depend?
(3) Mention illustrations of the affinity of chlorine for hydrogen.


E—The Stem.
(1) Draw a diagram of a cross-section of a dicotyl stem, and that of a cross section of a monocotyl stem.
(2) Name the different kinds of buds a stem may bear.
(3) Name the different kinds of underground stems that plants may produce.
(4) State the distinction between a stem and a thallus.
(5) In what two principal ways may stems branch?

(6) Draw a diagram of circinate prefoliation.
(7) How many orthostachies on a stem when the phyllotaxy is ⅜?
(8) The first two members of a series in alternate phyllotaxy being ½ and ⅓, what would the seventh member be?
(9) A certain leaf is described as follows: Petiolate, exstipulate, general outline of lamina ovate, apex mucronate, margin serrate, venation pinnifurcate. Draw such a leaf.
(10) What is the chief use of an ordinary or foliage leaf?

Final Junior Examination.


(1) Define extracts.
(2) Name six classes of extracts.
(3) What are "Succi Spissati?"
(4) Give a general process for their preparation.
(5) Describe Prof. Herrara's method of making extracts, and state the theory upon which it depends.
(6) What proximate principles are usually found in extracts?
(7) What class of principles are best extracted by strong alcohol?
(8) What class of principles are best extracted by water?
(9) Is diluted alcohol a good solvent for extracts? Give reasons for your answer.
(10) What influence has the choice of the menstruum on the yield of most extracts?

B—(1) What are scaled salts? How are they prepared?
(2) Are they usually definite chemical salts, or are they of varying molecular composition?
(3) Does reduced iron belong to this class?
(4) What is the present official name of reduced iron? What was its former official name? Under what other name is it known in commerce?
(5) Describe the method of making reduced iron, illustrating the process by a drawing.
(6) What precautions are necessary to prevent the very freshly-made powder from spontaneously igniting?
(7) When a dose of reduced iron is administered and eructations of hydrogen sulphide ensue, what is the usual cause of the unpleasant experience?
(8) How may the evolution of hydrogen sulphide be prevented?
(9) How may the quality of reduced iron be tested?
(10) What is its dose?


C—(1) Give the formula for ammonia. State its sources and methods for its production.
(2) Describe the physical and chemical properties of ammonia, and state what are its most important uses at present.
(3) How does ammonia react with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids? Give the formulas and chemical names of the products in these three cases.

D-(1) Complete the reactions: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl =; Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 =; Ca3(PO4)2 + 3H2SO4 =.
(2) Give the chemical formulas for boric acid, ofificial sodium borate, orthophosphoric acid, official sodium phosphate.

Botany and Materia Medica.

E—Organs of Vegetation.
(1) Name in the order of their evolution the organs of vegetation of the higher plants.
(2) How would you distinguish between a tuber and a tuberous root?
(3) State the distinction between a cladophyll and a phyllode.
(4) Make a drawing of a single leaf that answers the following description: exstipulate, petiolate, lamina 2 inches long, obcordate, crenulate, and with a pinni-furcate venation.
(5) Write the pharmacal name of the drug derived from Barosma betulina, and state three of the most important of the structural characteristics of the drug.

F—Organs of reproduction.
(6) What organs of the complete flower are essential to the production of seed? State the respective functions of these organs.
(7) Draw the ground plan of a typical flower of a monocotyl in which the anthers are bilocular and extrorse and the single compound ovary has marginal placentae.
(8) State the most distinctive difference between the flower of an angiosperm and that of a gymnosperm.
(9) Write the appropriate names of each of the following fruits: a pineapple, a grape, a black pepper, a colocynth, and a juniper fruit.
(10) Draw a diagram of a complete dicotyledonous embryo, pointing out and correctly naming each of its parts.


G—Diluted Hydrobromic Acid.
(1) What is its official name?
(2) What is its percentage strength?
(3) Give a process for its manufacture.
(4) What is its specific gravity? Should it be completely volatilized by heat? and why?
(5) What are its medicinal properties and dose?

H—Describe the following classes of official preparations. Give the official title and mode of preparation of one of each class.
(1) Mucilages.
(2) Emulsions.
(3) Mixtures.
(4) Infusions.
(5) Glycerites.

I—A pharmacist made a compound mustard liniment by mixing 3 per cent. of volatile oil of mustard, 20 per cent. of fluid extract of mezereum, 10 per cent. of oil of camphor, 15 per cent. of castor oil, with sufficient alcohol to make ten litres. How many c.c. of each ingredient did he use? (Percentage by measure being understood without allowance for contraction.) How many bottles, each to contain 500 grams of the liniment, would this quantity fill if its specific gravity was 0.850?

K—What antidotes should be administered at once for poisonous doses of—
(1) Corrosive sublimate.
(2) Ammonia water.
(3) State how you would prepare an emergency antidote for arsenous acid.
(4) What precautions are necessary in administaring antidotes?

Operative Pharmacy.

The Junior Examination in Operative Pharmacy was held on Saturday, March 2, 1895. The work exacted was the making of solution of ferric sulphate, mass of mercury, and granulated sodium acetate.


The Junior Examination in Pharmacognosy was held on Saturday, March 9, 1895. The students were divided into three sections. Numbered specimens of drugs were given them for examination, and they were required to answer the following questions:

Question 1.

A—(1) Rhizome or root? (2) Monocotyl or dicotyl? (3) Official name of drug? (4) What test applied for starch? (5) Result of test for starch? (6) What test applied for tannin? (7) Result of test for tannin?

B—Draw diagram of cross-section at least twice natural size, and point out the following parts: (1) Meditullium. (2) Cambium zone (if present). (3) A medullary ray (if present). (4) The endophloeum (if present). (5) The pith (if present).

Question 2.

A—Describe leaf or leaflet, with reference to the following points: (1) General outline. (2) Base. (3) Apex. (4) Margin. (5) Upper surface. (6) Under surface. (7) Texture. (8) Venation.

B—Make drawing of leaf or leaflet, writing underneath it the botanical name of the plant and the official name of the drug. Also point out in the drawing: (1) The petiole or the petiolule (if present). (2) One of the stipules (if stipules are present). (3) The midrib of a lamina (if a midrib is present).

Question 3.

A—The Flower. (In describing it, use the appropriate botanical terms), (1) Kinds of organs present? (2) Numerical plan? (3) Symmetry? (4) Regularity? (5) Insertion (a) of calyx; (b) of corolla; {c) of stamens? (6) Cohesion (a) of calyx; (b) of corolla; (r) of stamens; (d) of pistils?

B—Draw a diagram of the ground plan of the flower, indicating the correct number and relation of parts, the number of lobes of the anthers, the direction in which the anthers face, and the placentation of the ovary.

Question 4.

A—The Fruit, (1) Apocarpous or syncarpous? (2) If syncarpous, number of carpels? (3) Inferior or superior? (4) If dehiscent, the mode of dehiscence? (5) Placentation? (6) Simple, aggregated, or multiple? (7) Proper name of fruit?

B—Draw diagram of cross-section of fruit, showing number of loculi, mode of placentation, and point out a false partition, if any false partitions are present.

Question 5.

A—The Seed, (1) Atropous, anatropous, campylotropous or amphitropous? (2) Texture of testa? (3) Albuminous or exalbuminous? (4) Texture of albumin, if albumin is present? (5) Does the kernel of the seed possess starch? (6) Embryo monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous, or polycotyledonous?

B—Draw a diagram of the vertical section of the seed, and point out such of the following parts as are present: (1) Hilum. (2) Micropyle. (3) Chalaza. (4) Raphe. (5) Albumen. (6) Embryo.

The specimens in each section were as follows:

First Section.Second Section.Third Section.
Leaf:Uva ursi.Gaultheria.Buchu.
Flower:Azalea.Viola tricolor.Tulip.
Fruit:Illicium.Poppy capsule.Cardamom.
Seed:Amygdala amar.Castor bean.Pepo.

Senior Examination—The examination of the senior class for the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy commenced with that in Operative Pharmacy on Saturday, March 23d. On Monday, the 25th, the one on Analytical Chemistry was held, followed by the written examinations in the other branches. The following are the questions: (Not included in this .html version. -Henriette.)

The American Journal of Pharmacy, Vol. 67, 1895, was edited by Henry Trimble.