Botanical name: 

Preparation: Stronger White Wine
Related entries: Uvae.—Raisins - Vina Medicata.—Medicated Wines - Alcohol.—Alcohol
Other tomes: AJP1883 - AJP1887

VINUM ALBUM (U. S. P.), White wine.—"An alcoholic liquid, made by fermenting the juice of fresh grapes, the fruit of Vitis vinifera (Nat. Ord.—Vitaceae), freed from seeds, stems, and skins. When white wine is prescribed without further specification, it is recommended that a dry white wine of domestic production (such as California Riesling, Ohio Catawba, etc.) be employed. White wine should be preserved in well-closed casks, filled as full as possible, or in well-stoppered bottles, in a cool place"—(U. S. P.).

VINUM RUBRUM (U. S. P.), Red wine.—"An alcoholic liquid, made by fermenting the juice of fresh colored grapes, the fruit of Vitis vinifera (Nat. Ord.—Vitaceae), in the presence of their skins. When red wine is prescribed without further specification, it is recommended that a dry red wine of domestic production (such as a native Claret, Burgundy, etc.) be employed. Red wine should be preserved in well-closed casks, filled as full as possible, or in well-stoppered bottles, in a cool place"—(U. S. P.).

Source and Preparation.—Wines, in general, include the fermented juices of all sweet fruits, such as grapes, apples, pears, blackberries, currants, gooseberries, etc. In the special and commonly accepted sense, wine is the alcoholic liquid, produced by spontaneous fermentation of the juice of the grape. The grapes are harvested after they have reached their full maturity. The quality of the wine may be judged beforehand, by the ratio of acid to sugar in the grape; in good seasons, this ratio is about 1 to 30 and higher, in medium years, 1 to 16, in poor years, 1 to 12, below which the ratio seldom falls. If the ratio is 1 to 10, the wine will be sour.

In making White Wine (see article on "Ohio Wines," by James O. Howells, in Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. 324), unripe or decayed grapes are rejected, and the must is obtained by passing the grapes between horizontal wooden rollers, placed above large vats. The must represents the liquid portion of the grape (see Uvae), and the yield is from 60 to 70 per cent. Must contains from 18 to 24 and as high as 30 per cent of sugar, and from 0.4 to 1 per cent of acid, consisting chiefly of potassium bitartrate, with free tartaric and malic acids. The must is allowed to stand in the vats for about 18 to 36 hours, in order to induce slight fermentation, which facilitates the settling of the marc. The must is then drawn off, and the remaining mass expressed in large wine-presses. The must is put into large casks, which are kept nearly full, and a uniform temperature of about 15° C. (59° F.), or less, is maintained. Spontaneous fermentation then proceeds, induced by the access of spores from the air or the grapes to which they adhere. The dextrose of the must is converted into alcohol and carbonic acid, with a small percentage of glycerin and succinic acid (see Alcohol). At the temperature indicated, fermentation is moderate, and the yeast and lees settle to the bottom of the cask (bottom or low fermentation), while, at higher temperatures (15° to 25° C., or 59° to 77° F.), the yeast rises to the surface, and the fermentation is quite rapid (surface or high fermentation). The former is practiced in Germany, France, and some parts of the United States, while Spanish, Italian wines, etc., are fermented by the second method, and yield a product richer in alcohol, but nearly devoid of the fragrance, or bouquet, possessed by the other class of wines. The bottom fermentation lasts from 2 to 4 weeks. The product, called young wine, must be transferred to fresh casks ("racking off"), without delay, in order to prevent the formation of acetic acid. The second stage, a still fermentation (after-fermentation), sets in, lasting for several months, during which time potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar, argol) is thrown out in proportion as the quantity of alcohol, in which it is insoluble, increases. Thus it is seen that, in making wine from the grape, a large part of its acidity is automatically thrown out. The aroma (bouquet) of the wine is developed during the third stage of fermentation, which lasts for several years, then the wine is bottle-ripe. Meanwhile, it must be repeatedly racked off, in order to separate the lees, which are liable to cause undesirable changes in the wine if in too prolonged contact with it. In order to obtain a clear, limpid wine, it is usually treated with isinglass or gelatin (fining).

Red Wines (e.g., American Claret, Burgundy, Bordeaux, etc.) are made from red grapes in the same manner, except that the must is allowed to ferment in contact with the marc, whereby the coloring matter of the skins is dissolved by the alcohol as it forms. This also increases the amount of tannin in the wine, hence the acerbity of some red wines. Precautions must be taken by mechanical means to prevent the marc from rising to the surface, which would induce souring. When the first fermentation is finished, the marc is pressed off, and the wine is put into casks to undergo after-fermentation.

Sweet Wines (e. g., Sherry, Port, Sweet Catawba, Lachrymae Christi, Tokay, etc.) are made by adding concentrated grape juice or pure cane sugar to the must, whereby a certain percentage remains unfermented, or fermentation of the natural must is checked at a certain stage by the addition of alcohol; or lastly, sugar may be added to the completely fermented wine. Sweet wines are usually made stronger in alcohol than dry wines, in order to prevent subsequent fermentation of their sugar contents.

Effervescing Wines (Champagnes) are made from carefully selected wines that have already passed through the first and second fermentation. The clear wines are put into strong bottles, with the addition of a definite quantity of "liqueur," consisting of pure cane-sugar solution and cognac, etc., securely corked and arranged horizontally on wooden racks, where they are exposed to the temperature of summer heat, which induces fermentation of the added sugar. Gradually the bottles are inclined neck downward. The wine becomes clear and limpid, and the yeast and lees settle on the cork. Finally, by quick manipulation, the cork is taken out, the yeast ejected by the pressure of the gas, the loss of wine replaced by "liqueur," and the bottles are again securely corked and stored. The pressure in the bottles is from 4 to 6 atmospheres. Champagne wines are now frequently imitated by impregnating wines with carbonic acid gas.

Diseases and Improvement of Wines.—Wine is subject to various accidents during its manufacture and storage. Of these, the formation of acetic acid or souring has been noted above. It takes place quite readily in wines that are weak in. alcohol and in tannin. The ropiness, bitterness, and other defects of wines are mostly due to the access of foreign ferments. In order to guard against these, it is a common practice in the cellar treatment of wines to fumigate the casks with sulphur dioxide from burning strips of sulphur prior to filling them with wine. Another and very efficient method of preserving wine consists in Pasteurizing, i. e., the wine contained in bottles or casks is exposed to a temperature of about 60° C. (140° F.), and subsequently kept out of contact with air. The addition of burnt gypsum (plaster of Paris) to the must (plastering) is said to bring about a more rapid fermentation, a brighter color and better keeping qualities. The practice is in use especially in southern Europe, and is objectionable, because it converts the potassium bitartrate of the wine into acid potassium sulphate (KHSO4), which remains in solution while neutral calcium tartrate is precipitated. The former salt, if present in large quantities, is not a harmless ingredient (see pharmacopoeial limitation, below).

It is often desirable that a poor quality of wine be improved, especially when due to an unfavorable season. Several methods are in use, some of which are rational and ought to be considered perfectly legitimate. Among the more important processes are:

CHAPTALIZING (named after Prof. Chaptal, of Montpellier). This consists in adding sugar, and neutralizing an excess of tartaric acid by the addition of a calculated amount of calcium carbonate in the form of marble dust or the pure precipitated carbonate. By this method, no calcium enters the wine, unless it contains acetic acid. In the absence of the latter, the method is quite applicable, especially when the excess of acidity is due to free tartaric acid, the amount of which, however, must be accurately determined. Liebig proposed to remove excess of tartaric acid by the addition of a calculated quantity of neutral potassium tartrate, the purpose being to convert the undesirable excess of the free tartaric acid into the little soluble bitartrate. When the free acid is malic acid, this process is not applicable.

PETIOTIZING (Pétiot, a Burgundy landowner) consists in subjecting the pressed-out marc to a second and probably third fermentation in contact with water and sugar. Advantage is taken of the fact that the first fermentation does not remove all the coloring matter, tannin and bitartrate from the marc. A great number of the French Bordeaux wines of the market are made by this profitable method.

GALLIZING (named after its advocate, Dr. Ludwig Gall) aims to correct the composition of a poor quality of must by the addition of sufficient water and sugar to bring it to a normal composition. Dr. Gall considers a normal must to contain 24 per cent of sugar, 0.6 per cent of acid, and 75.4 per cent of water. Analysis of the must will establish the quantities of sugar and water needed for correction. Any excessive addition of water and sugar is indicated by the deficiency in extractive matter (see analysis, page 2066).

SCHEELIZING (named after Scheele) consists in adding a certain amount of glycerin to the wine in order to correct the taste of very acid, thin wines.

Description, Chemical Composition, and Tests.—There is considerable diversity in the different wines in regard to their flavor and the relative proportions of their constituents, owing to differences in the grape, the climate, soil and management. Wines may be generally classed according to their color into white and red wines; according to their saccharine contents into dry and sweet wines, the former being practically free from sugar; according to the quantity of alcohol they contain, we have light and strong or generous wines; another well-known distinction is that between still and sparkling wines (Champagnes). Certain famous wines are named according to the country or district of their origin, e. g., Port, Sherry, Madeira, etc.

American Wines.—In the '50s, the chief American grape used in wine-making was the Catawba grape, introduced to the notice of wine-growers by Major Adlum, of Washington, D. C. It was then much cultivated in the vicinity of Cincinnati (see Wm. Procter, Jr., Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1854, p. 411; and E. S. Wayne, ibid., 1855, p. 494). Now we have many American pure wines from native grapes (see Uvae), produced in the wine districts of Virginia, the Lake Erie regions and especially California, the output of the latter state alone in 1893 having been 20,000,000 of gallons. The U. S. P. directs the preferment of American-grown wines. Catawba wines are rather acid, and, with other American wines, compare favorably in strength, bouquet and appearance with the best wines of central and southern Europe. American Claret is a dry, red wine of moderate alcoholic strength. Its French equivalent is Red Bordeaux wine. As to foreign wines, suffice it to allude to a few of the more largely employed wines of southern Europe; also see interesting article on "Wines on the Rhine," by Charles A. Lee, in Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1863, p. 324.

SHERRY WINE (Vinum Xericum of the Br. Pharm., 1898). The original Sherry comes from the vicinity of the Spanish city, Xeres de la Frontera. It is of a pale yellowish-brown or deep-amber color, feebly acid and of an agreeable aroma. According to König (Die Menschl. Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 3d ed., 1894), the alcoholic strength of commercial Sherry varies from 18 to 25 per cent by volume, and its extractive matter from 3 to 5 per cent. Its specific gravity ranges from 0.978 to 0.995. The British Pharmacopoeia (1898) requires it to contain "not less than 16 per cent of ethyl hydroxide by volume." The German Pharmacopoeia directs that the southern wines (Sherry, Port, Madeira, Marsala) "should contain in one liter not less than 140 Cc. and not more than 200 Cc. of alcohol." The same authority gives the following directions: "The quantity of sulphuric acid in one liter of wine should not exceed the quantity contained in 2 grammes of potassium sulphate." This is intended to limit excessive plastering, which is practised with many southern wines, especially all genuine Sherry wines (J. König, loc. cit.). Imitations of Sherry are numerous, and are often made from cheap wines, with the addition of sugar, raisins, cloves, St. John's bread, etc. The British Pharmacopoeia (1898) gives directions for the testing of Sherry for salicylic acid. On the Sherry wine industry in Spain, see interesting article in Western Druggist, 1897, p. 462, from U. S. Consular reports.

MADEIRA WINE.—This wine is grown in the Canary Islands, and is obtained by adding to the must a certain quantity of alcohol, which shortens the time of the fermentation. At a later stage, alcohol is again added. The wine has from 18 to 20 per cent alcohol, and from 4 to 6 per cent extract (J. König, loc. cit.). A special kind of Dry Madeira is less sweet and more astringent. Commercial. Madeira is also much adulterated.

MALAGA WINE (Vinum Malacense) is made in the Spanish province of Malaga. It is a sweet wine, of light or dark color, and contains from 13 to 19 per cent of alcohol, by volume, and from 14 to 21 per cent of extract (J. König, loc. cit.). Its composition and appearance is regulated in the place of its manufacture by the addition of alcoholized must (for sugar), and an alcoholic extract of the dark grape (for color). A very dark Malaga is made from arrope, i. e., a sugar-coloring made from concentrated must by aid of heat. It is an article of commerce in Spain.

PORT WINE (Vinum Portense) comes from the valley of the river Douro, and enters commerce through Oporto, hence its name. The juice ferments in contact with the fresh grapes, and the wine is finally drawn off; then alcohol is added. In bad seasons all sugar is consumed in the fermentation; then an addition of concentrated must (jeropiga), or sugar, is made. The port wine of commerce contains from 15 to 24 per cent of alcohol by volume, and 4 from 3 to 8 per cent of extract. It has been the practice in Portugal to color the wine with the juice of elderberries. It acquires its best flavor by age, and deposits a large quantity of coloring matter during its storage in bottles. Port wine of commerce is very seldom genuine. The American port wines are made from grapes grown from vines that were originally imported from Portugal. They resemble true port wine in flavor and appearance, but contain less alcohol (about 14 to 16 per cent by volume).

MARSALA WINE is made near the city of Marsala in Sicily. The must is allowed to ferment to a certain degree; then alcohol is added to interrupt fermentation.

For further details regarding the manufacture and treatment of wines, see for example, Prof. S. P. Sadtler's Handbook of Indust. Org. Chem., 2d ed., 1895, and the special literature on the subject indicated therein on page 246.

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of the different wines is very variable. Their constituents are as follows: Water (80 to 90 per cent), alcohol (5 to 15 per cent by weight, or 6.2 to 18.8 per cent by volume), glycerin (0.2 to 0.8 per cent), volatile acids (e.g., acetic, oenanthic, etc.) being one-fourth of the total acidity; carbonic acid gas in young wines; aldehydes; oenanthic ether of vinous odor consist of caprinic and caprylic esters; unknown volatile substances constituting the "bouquet" of wines; dextrose (grape sugar) in small quantities, except in sweet wines; bitartrate of potassium, tartaric, malic and phosphoric acids, partly free, partly combined with potash, lime, soda, aluminum, magnesium, iron, and manganese; phosphate of calcium constituting from 20 to 60 per cent of the weight of the ash; sulphates, and traces of chlorides; coloring matters; pectin and gum (imparting "body" to the wine); tannin, amounting to from 0.1 to 0.2 per cent in red wines, while mere traces (about 0.01 per cent) occur in white wines (adapted from C. A. Crampton's report in Foods and Food Adulterants, Part III, Bull. No. 13, United States Department of Agriculture, 1887). The quantitative composition of some representative wines is given in the subjoined table.

THE ANALYSIS OF WINE takes into account the determination of specific gravity (is usually below 1, but in most sweet wines above 1), alcohol, extractive or total solids (fixed for the U. S. P. wines between the limits of 1.6 to 3.5 per cent for red, and 1.5 to 3.0 for white wines); acidity (limited for the U. S. P. wines between 0.5 and 0.9 per cent in both kinds, calculated as tartaric acid), sugar, glycerin, tannic acid, and ash, and the search for special adulterants, such as artificial coloring matters (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1887, p. 200, ibid., 1892, p. 626, and Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1897, p. 536); preservatives, such as salicylic acid, etc. E. Claassen tests wine for salicylic acid by acidulating it with dilute sulphuric acid, and shaking with a mixture of equal volumes of ether and benzin. Evaporation of the ethereal layer leaves a residue producing a violet color with dilute solution of ferric chloride (Digest of Criticisms on the U. S. P., Part 1, 1892).

While we can not here enter into the interesting but extensive field of wine analysis, we may state that a uniform method of wine analysis has been elaborated by a German commission (see Dr. Max Barth, Die Weinanalyse, Leipzig, 1884; also see extensive comment by C. A. Crampton, loc. cit.), and has become official in Germany by an act of 1892. The method is more or less followed also in the United States. (In this connection, see Nessler and Barth, on the "Analysis of Wine," in Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1882, pp. 444-454.) The U. S. P. makes the following requirements for white and red wines:

I. VINUM ALBUM (U. S. P.), White wine.—"A pale amber-colored or straw-colored liquid, having a pleasant odor free from yeastiness, and a fruity, agreeable, slightly spirituous taste without excessive sweetness or acidity. The specific gravity, at 15.6° C. (60° F.), should not be less than 0.990, nor more than 1.010. If a portion of white wine be evaporated, the residue, when dried during 12 hours on a water-bath, should not amount to less than 1.5 nor more than 3 per cent. To neutralize 50 Cc. of white wine should require not less than 3 nor more than 5.2 Cc. of normal potassium hydrate V.S. (limit of free acid), phenolphtalein being used as indicator. If 10 Cc. of white wine be diluted with an equal volume of water, and treated with 5 drops of ferric chloride T.S., only a faint, greenish-brown color may make its appearance (absence of more than traces of tannic acid). Tested by the following method, white wine should be found to contain not less than 10 nor more than 14 per cent, by weight (equivalent to 12.4 to 17.3 per cent, by volume), of absolute alcohol: Take the specific gravity (to 4 decimals) of a sufficient portion of the white wine, carefully measured, at the temperature of 15.6° C. (60° F.), evaporate the white wine in a tared capsule to one-third of its original weight, cool, and add water until the liquid measures its original volume at 15.6° C. (60° F.), then take the specific gravity (to 4 decimals) again. The difference between the two specific gravities, deducted from 1.0000, corresponds to the specific gravity of an alcohol containing the same percentage of absolute alcohol, by weight or volume, as the wine under examination, the corresponding percentage being ascertained by referring to the alcoholometric tables"—(U. S. P.).

II. VINUM RUBRUM (U. S. P.), Red wine.—"A deep-red liquid, having a pleasant odor, free from yeastiness, and a fruity, moderately astringent, pleasant, and slightly acidulous taste, without excessive sweetness or acidity. The specific gravity, at 15.6° C. (60° F.), should not be less than 0.989, nor more than 1.010. If a portion of red wine be evaporated, the residue, when dried during 12 hours on a water-bath, should not amount to less than 1.6 per cent, nor more than 3.5 per cent. To neutralize 50 Cc. of red wine should require not less than 3 nor more than 5.2 Cc. of normal potassium hydrate V.S. (limit of free acid), eosin or fluorescein being used as indicator. If 10 Cc. of red wine be diluted with an equal volume of water, and treated with 5 drops of ferric chloride T.S., the liquid should acquire a brownish-green color (due to tannic acid). With lead acetate T.S., red wine forms a heavy precipitate, which may vary in color from bluish-green to green. If 2 Cc. of red wine be mixed, in a test-tube, with 2 drops of chloroform and 4 Cc. of normal potassium hydrate V.S., and the mixture carefully heated, the disagreeable odor of isonitril should not become perceptible (absence of various aniline colors). If 50 Cc. of red wine be treated with a slight excess of ammonia water, the liquid should acquire a green or brownish-green color; if it be then well shaken with 25 Cc. of ether, the greater portion of the ethereal layer removed, and evaporated in a porcelain capsule with an excess of acetic acid and a few fibers of uncolored silk, the latter should not acquire a crimson or violet color (absence of fuchsine). If 25 Cc. of red wine, heated to about 45° C. (113° F.), be well agitated with 25 Gm. of manganese dioxide, the liquid filtered off, and acidulated with hydrochloric acid, it should not acquire a red color (absence of sulphofuchsine). Tested by the following method, red wine should be found to contain not less than 10 nor more than 14 per cent, by weight (equivalent to 12.4 to 17.3 per cent, by volume), of absolute alcohol: Take the specific gravity (to 4 decimals) of a sufficient portion of the red wine, accurately measured, at the temperature of 15.6° C. (60° F.), evaporate the wine, in a tared capsule, to one-third of its original weight, cool, and add water until the liquid measures its original volume at 15.6° C. (60° F.), then take the specific gravity (to 4 decimals) again. The difference between the two specific gravities, deducted from 1.0000, corresponds to the specific gravity of an alcohol containing the same percentage of absolute alcohol, by weight or volume, as the wine under examination, the corresponding percentage being ascertained by referring to the alcoholometric tables"—(U. S. P.).

The distillation method, for the determination of alcohol in wines, is carried out as follows: 100 Cc. of the sample are rinsed into a flask with about 50 Cc. of water; the flask is connected with a Liebig's condenser, exactly 100 Cc. are distilled off, measured at the same temperature as the original bulk was measured; then the specific gravity is taken, either by means of an alcoholometer, or, preferably, by means of a picnometer. The alcoholic strength of the distillate may then be read from alcohol tables, e.g., Hehner's table (see C. A. Crampton, loc. cit., p. 285).

The following table, by J. König (loc. cit.), gives the average composition of some European sweet wines of commerce:

WINES. Specific gravity. Alcohol (by weight), per cent. Extract. Sugar. Acid.— Tartartic. Glycerin. Nitrogenous substance. Mineral matters. P2O5. SO3. K2O.
Tokay 1.0870 9.44 23.63 19.44 0.57 0.62 0.37 0.32 0.054 0.054 0.116
Port 1.0081 16.69 8.05 5.82 0.40 - - 0.23 0.031 0.023 0.102
Madeira 1.0003 15.40 5.52 3.23 0.43 - - 0.35 0.060 0.075 0.149
Malaga 1.0694 11.95 21.73 17.11 0.55 0.46 - 0.41 0.049 0.043 0.187
Marsala 1.0022 15.85 5.27 3.53 0.49 0.51 0.23 0.38 0.029 0.114 0.142
Sherry 0.9932 17.45 3.98 2.12 0.45 0.52 0.17 0.38 0.031 0.128 0.206
Pure, genuine Sherry - 15.61 2.63 2.60 0.39 0.49 - 0.49 0.027 0.209 0.228

(For a great number of tabulated analyses of all grades of American wines, by Henry B. Parsons [1880] and C. A. Crampton [1887], including the experimental results obtained by Prof. E. W. Hilgard, in the Viticultural Laboratory of the University of California, see Mr. C. A. Crampton's report, loc. cit.)

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—In moderate quantities, wine operates as a stimulant to the nervous and vascular systems, and the secreting organs. It quickens the action of the heart and arteries, diffuses an agreeable warmth over the body, promotes the different secretions, communicates a feeling of increased muscular force, excites the mental powers, and banishes unpleasant ideas. In a state of health, its use can be in no way beneficial, but on the contrary, its habitual employment in many cases proves injurious by exhausting the vital powers and inducing disease. The actual amount of injury it may inflict will, of course, vary with the quantity and quality of the wine taken, and according to the greater or less predisposition to disease which may exist in the system. Maladies of the digestive organs, and of the cerebro-spinal system, gout, gravel and dropsy, are those most likely to be induced or aggravated by it. Intoxication in its varied forms is the effect of excessive quantities of wine. Wine, however, possesses a tonic influence not observed after the use of ardent spirit, and differs from it, likewise, in not inducing disease of the liver. Dr. McCulloch observes: "It is well known that diseases of the liver are the most common and the most formidable of those produced by the use of ardent spirit; it is equally certain that no such disorders follow the intemperate use of pure wine, however long indulged in. To the concealed and unwitting consumption of spirit, therefore, as contained in the wines commonly drunk in this country, is to be attributed the excessive prevalence of those hepatic affections which are comparatively little, known to our Continental neighbors" (the French).

As a medicinal agent, wine is employed principally as a cordial, stimulant, and tonic; some, however, possess acid and astringent properties. Wine is useful in low forms of fever to support the vital powers, promote sleep, and relieve delirium and subsultus tendinum; it is also useful as a stimulating tonic in convalescence from fevers, and from various chronic diseases. It is often given with the best effects in cases of extensive ulceration, copious suppuration, gangrene of the extremities, and after profuse hemorrhages, severe operations, or extensive injuries. Whenever it causes dryness of the tongue, thirst, quick pulse, restlessness or delirium, its use should be immediately dispensed with, as well as in active inflammations. In tetanus, its free use has at times produced an apparent alleviation of the disease (P). The best wines for practical use are, Port, Sherry, or Madeira, among the stronger wines; and among the weaker, Claret, Hock, Moselle, and Champagne. Port is a red or dark-purple, somewhat astringent wine, and may be used as a stimulant tonic in cases of debility; it is apt, however, to cause constipation, and usually disagrees with weak stomachs. Sherry is a dark yellowish-brown white wine, having a pleasant and peculiar flavor, and containing a very small amount of free acid; it is best adapted for gouty patients, and those disposed to acid stomach, or uric acid deposits. Madeira is somewhat of the color of Sherry, is feebly acid, and more stimulating than Sherry; it is better adapted for old persons and weak, broken-down constitutions, and for invalids. Teneriffe is similar to Madeira wine, but less stimulating. Among the weaker wines, none are equal to the Claret or Bordeaux wine; this wine is acid and slightly astringent, and is the least injurious among the wines. It may be used, as well as the Rhine and Moselle wines where the urine deposits phosphates, in low fevers, etc., but should not be used in gout, and uric acid deposits. Champagne is more apt to cause headache than any other wine, yet it is a good excitant and diuretic, useful in hypochondria, low stage of fevers, excessive debility, and in excessive vomiting during pregnancy or at other times. Catawba wines are rather acid, and may be used as a substitute for Madeira and Claret. The dose of wine varies from a teaspoonful to a wineglassful, to be repeated every 1, 2, or 4 hours, according to the circumstances of the case; it may be given alone, or mixed with water and sweetened, and if not contraindicated, some nutmeg may be grated upon it. Wine may also be added to soups, gruels, milk, etc., and to nutritive and stimulating enemas. Wine is some times employed in the preparation of medicated wines, but from its liability to undergo decomposition, it is much more objectionable as a solvent than diluted alcohol. In obstinate cases of conjunctivitis, of 1 or 2 years' standing, apparently unyielding to all treatment, I have found permanent cures to be rapidly effected by allowing the patient a free use of the ripe Catawba grape; the children thus cured were of a strumous disposition. In some cases, it was astonishing to witness the rapidity with which the cure progressed (J. King).

Related Wines.—RAISIN WINES. This class of wines is now frequently made in France, owing to the destruction of large tracts of vineyards by diseases of the vine and other accidents (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1898, p. 48). M. Palangié (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1889, p. 245, from Jour. de Pharm. et Chim.) recommends the following: Take Corinth raisins, 25 kilogrammes; sugar, 4 kilogrammes; fresh grapes, 1 kilogramme; tartaric acid, 25 Gm. Exhaust the raisins with 3 waters; press and unite all the liquors in a cask. Dissolve the sugar and tartaric acid in water, and boil for a few minutes; add this to the other liquors, with water to make 1 hectoliter; then add the grapes, previously bruised, and keep the mixture at a temperature of 25° C. (77° F.). In 48 hours from the beginning of fermentation, the air in the cask must be renewed, and this must be repeated daily until fermentation ceases. The wine should stand for a month before bottling. The taste of these wines is tart and sweetish; their flavor recalls that of raisins.

MALTON WINES.—These alcoholic preparations, invented by Dr. Sauer in 1895, are made from infusion of barley malt, and are distinguished from ordinary wines by containing lactic instead of tartaric acid; much scientific skill is required in their preparation. The process is carried out in three phases: (1) Producing solution of maltose (17 to 20 per cent) by making an infusion of malted barley; (2) producing lactic acid by the addition of a pure culture lactic ferments at 50° C. (122° F.), until a percentage of 0.6 to 0.8 of acid is obtained, when the souring is interrupted by exposure to a temperature of 75° C. (167° F.); (3) cooling the "wort" rapidly to 25° C. (77° F.), and adding specially cultivated yeast from genuine southern wines, as Sherry, Port, etc.; then allow to ferment by "high fermentation," from time to time adding maltose in the form of vacuum-concentrated wort. The unusual yield of 18 per cent of alcohol by volume is easily obtained by this process. Fermentation lasts from 3 to 5 weeks; then draw off and treat as any other wine. These wines, though retaining a slight taste of extract of malt, are said to have the pronounced character of the genuine wines from the pure yeast of which they are made (see report on these wines, by W. Möslinger, in Forschungsberichte über Lebensmittel, 1896, p. 313).

HOOCHINOO.—The spirituous beverage of the Alaskans, about corresponding in alcoholic strength with Sherry wine (Marshall).

King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.