Hops (Humulus lupulus) is a climbing vine found in thickets and along river banks throughout Europe, and extending to and beyond the Caucasus and Caspian regions. Introduced into America, hops have become acclimated, and especially in the Northwest are cultivated in immense quantity. Hop gardens existed in France and Germany in the eighth and ninth centuries, and "Bavarian hops" were esteemed in the eleventh century. It has been asserted that William the Conqueror, 1069, granted the use of land for hops in England. The original use of hops was in decoction as a stomachic medicine, whilst their employment in the making of malted liquors is familiar to all. As a tonic, the hop is still valued in simple decoction and in extract, both by the people and the profession of medicine.