2. Oleum Terebinthinae, E. D.—Oil of Turpentine.

This essential oil is frequently, though erroneously, called spirits or essence of turpentine.

Preparation.—It is obtained by submitting to distillation a mixture of American turpentine (which has been melted and strained) and water in due proportions, in the ordinary copper still, with a naked fire. The distilled product is found to consist of oil of turpentine swimming on water; the residue in the still is resin. If no water be employed, a much higher temperature is required to effect the distillation, and danger is thereby incurred of causing empyreuma. Mr. Flockton, a large distiller of turpentine in this metropolis, informs me that the average quantity of oil yielded by American turpentine is from 14 to 16 per cent. He also tells me that Bordeaux turpentine yields an oil having a more disagreeeble odour, and a rosin of inferior quality.

To deprive it of all traces of resinous and acid matters, oil of turpentine should be redistilled from a solution of potash, and this is actually done, as Mr. Flockton informs me. The British Colleges, however, direct it to be purified by distillation with water only.

The directions of the Edinburgh College for the preparation of Rectified Oil of Turpentine (Oleum Terebinthinae purificatum, E.), are as follows:—

Take of Oil of Turpentine Oj; Water Oiv. Distil as long as oil comes over with the water.

The London College gives no directions for the rectification of the oil; but places the rectified oil (oleum e terebintho destillatum, rectificatum, L.).

Properties.—Pure oil of turpentine is a colourless, limpid, very inflammable fluid. It has a peculiar, and, to most persons, disagreeable odour, and a hot taste. When pure, it is neutral to test paper. Its sp. gr. is 0.86 at about 70° F. It boils at about 314° F.; the density of its vapour is 4.76 (Dumas). It is very slightly soluble in hydrated alcohol; but 100 parts of alcohol, of sp. gr. 0.840, dissolve 13 or 14 parts of it, and absolute alcohol takes up a still larger proportion. The oil is also soluble in ether. Exposed to the air, it absorbs oxygen, becomes yellowish, and somewhat denser, owing to the formation of resin (pinic and sylvic acids). This resinification is accompanied with the production of a small quantity of formic acid.

Oil of turpentine enjoys the power of rotating the ray of plane-polarized light; but the direction of rotation is different in the English and French oils—in the former being right-handed, in the latter left-handed.

Fig. 280. Plan of the apparatus for showing the ci... Fig. 281. Ordinary and extraordinary images. Plan of the apparatus for showing the circular polarization of oil of turpentine.

a. A ray of common or unpolarized light.
b. A glass reflector, placed at an angle of 56°.45, for effecting the plane-polarization of the light.
c. The reflected plane-polarized ray.
d. The oil of turpentine, which effects the double refraction and rotation of the plane-polarized light.
e. The emergent circularly-polarized light.
f. The analyzer (a double refracting rhomb of calcareous spar), which produces two-coloured images: one caused by ordinary refraction, and called the ordinary image (o); the other by extraordinary refraction, and termed the extraordinary image (x).
g. A lens employed to produce well-defined images.

When the eye is applied to the aperture above or in front of the lens g, two circular disks of coloured light (Fig. 281) are perceived; one (o) the ordinary, the other (x) the extraordinary image. The colours of these images are complementary to each other. By rotating the analyzer (f) on its axis, the extraordinary image (x) revolves around the ordinary image (o); each image undergoing a succession of changes of colour; the sequence of colours being different for the English and French oils of turpentine.

Sequence of colours for Oil of Turpentine as obtained by the right-handed Rotation of the Analyzer.

English Oil of Turpentine
(Obtained from American turpentine, the produce of Pinus palustris and P. taeda.)
French Oil of Turpentine
(Obtained from Bordeaus turpentine, the produce of Pinus Pinaster.)
Ordinary Image.Extraordinary Image.Ordinary Image.Extraordinary Image.
Orange.Blue.Violet, Indigo.Yellow.
Yellow.Indigo, Violet.Blue.Orange.
Blue.Orange.Yellow.Violet, Indigo.
Indigo, Violet.Yellow.Orange.Blue.

Moreover, the degree of rotatory power is not uniform.

English oil of turpentine (obtained by distillation with water from American turpentine) is remarkable for its comparatively feeble odour. A sample of oil whose sp. gr. was 0.863, had a molecular power of right-handed rotation of 18.5 to 18.7.

French oil of turpentine (obtained by distillation from Bordeaux turpentine) enjoys the power of left-handed rotation; the intensity of which, however, is subject to some variation, as the following table shows:—

Sp. Gr.Left-handed Rotatory Power.
Unrectified oil0.880628.83
First product of the rectification with water0.873631.657
Latter product of the rectification with water0.88922.327
Oil rectified without water0.87332.23
Oil rectified without water preserved 10 years with potash0.8733.95

It is obvious, therefore, that the molecular constitution of oil of turpentine is not constant.

Bouchardat found that the unrectified oil was an imperfect solvent of caoutchouc; and the oil rectified without water a better one. But the same oil distilled from bricks was pyrogenous, had a slight lemon-yellow colour, a sp. gr. of 0.8422, a rotatory power of only 8°.68, and a much increased power of dissolving caoutchouc.

Rectified oil of turpentine is sold in the shops under the name of camphene, for burning in lamps. When it has become resinified by exposure to the air, it is unfit for the purposes of illumination, and requires to be rectified from carbonate of potash, or some similarly active substance, to deprive it of resin.

The sweet oil of turpentine or sweet spirits of turpentine—sold in the shops for "painting without smell"—does not appear to differ from the rectified oil of turpentine of English commerce.

The common or unrectified oil of turpentine, sold in the shops under the name of turps, contains resin, and is, in consequence, denser and more viscid than camphene. Its sp. gr. varies from 0.87 to 0.884. Oil of turpentine is composed of

Atoms.Eq. Wt.Per Cent.
Oil of Turpentine113699.99

Hydrates of oil of turpentine.—Four hydrates of oil of turpentine are known. When the commercial oil is exposed to an intense cold, crystals either of the binhydrate C30H16, 2HO, or of the hexahydrate C20H16, 6HO, are deposited. The latter forms large prismatic crystals, which, at a temperature of about 217 ½° F., became converted into the quadhydrate C20H16, 4HO. The monohydrate, C20H16HO, is a liquid which List calls terpinol.

Hydrochlorate of oil of turpentine; Artificial Camphor.—When hydrochloric acid is passed into oil of turpentine, surrounded by ice, two compounds are obtained—one solid, called solid or Kind's artificial camphor; the other fluid, and termed liquid artificial camphor, terebene, or terebylene.

Solid artificial camphor, C20H16, HCl, is white, transparent, lighter than water, and has a camphoraceous taste. It is neutral to test paper, fuses at a temperature above the boiling point of water, and is volatilizable usually with the evolution of hydrochloric acid. It burns in the air with a greenish sooty flame; and when the flame is blown out, evolves a vapour which has a terebinthinate odour. Distilled with lime, it yields chloride of calcium, water, and a volatile oil called camphilene, which is isomeric with oil of turpentine, but has no rotatory power in relation to polarized light.

The quantity of solid artificial camphor yielded by oil of turpentine depends on the sort of oil employed. From Thenard's experiments, it would appear that French oil of turpentine yields the largest produce.

Artificial camphor does not produce the lesion of the nervous system which is caused by ordinary camphor. Orfila found that half an ounce of it, dissolved in olive oil, and given to a dog, caused merely a few small ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach.

Characteristics of Oil of Turpentine.—As a volatile oil, it is recognized by its combustibility, its burning with a very sooty flame, its almost insolubility in water, its solubility in alcohol and in ether, its volatility, and its evaporating without leaving any greasy stain on paper.

It is sometimes used to adulterate other more costly volatile oils; and it may then be detected by one or more of the following characters: 1st, its remarkable odour; 2dly, its rotatory power in relation to polarized light; 3dly, its being only very slightly soluble in diluted spirit; 4thly, its ready admixture with, and solubility in, the fixed oils; 5thly, its not being able to dissolve, in the cold, santaline (the colouring principle of the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus), whereas some of the other volatile oils (as oil of lavender) do dissolve it; 6thly, by the violent action of both chlorine and iodine on it.

Physiological Effects. α. On Vegetables.—Plants exposed to the vapour of this oil are rapidly destroyed. [De Candolle, Phys. Vég. p. 1347.]

β. On Animals.—On both vertebrated and invertebrated animals it operates as a poison. Injected into the veins of horses and dogs it excites pneumonia. [Hertwich and Gaspard, quoted by Wibmer, Wirk. d. Arzn. u. Gifte, Bd. iv. p. 212.] Two drachms thrown into the veins of a horse caused trembling, reeling, falling, inclination to pass urine and stools, and frequent micturition. Inflammatory fever, with cough, continued to the 8th day; then putrid fever appeared. On the 9th day death took place. The body presented all the signs of putrid fever and pneumonia (Hertwich). Schubarth [Wibmer, op. cit.] found that two drachms of the rectified oil, given to a dog, caused tetanus, failure of the pulse and breathing, and death in three minutes. The skin of the horse is very sensible to the influence of oil of turpentine, which produces acute pain. "It is a remarkable circumstance," says Moiroud, [Pharm.-Vétér. p. 314.] "that this pain is not accompanied with any considerable hyperaemia. It is quickly produced, but is of short duration." Oil of turpentine is sometimes employed by veterinarians as a blister, but it is inferior to cantharides, and, if frequently applied, is apt to blemish (i.e., to cause the hair of the part to fall off). In doses of three ounces it is a most valuable antispasmodic in the colic of horses. [Youatt, The Horse, in Library of Useful Knowledge.] In small doses it acts as a diuretic. Tiedemann and Gmelin [Versuch ü. d. Wege auf welch. Subst. ins Blut gelang.] detected oil of turpentine in the chyle of a dog and a horse, to whom this agent had been given.

γ. On Man.—In small doses (as six or eight drops to fʒj) it creates a sensation of warmth in the stomach and bowels, becomes absorbed, circulates with the blood, and in this way affects the capillary vessels, and is thrown out of the system by the different excretories, on the secerning vessels of which it acts in its passage through them. The exhalations of the skin and bronchial membranes acquire a marked terebinthinate odour, while the urine obtains the smell of violets. By its influence on the renal vessels it proves diuretic. By the same kind of local influence on the cutaneous vessels it proves sudorific. It appears to have a constringing effect on the capillary vessels of the mucous membranes, for, under its use, catarrhal affections of, and hemorrhages from, these parts are frequently checked, and often are completely stopped. Its continued use sometimes brings on irritation of the urinary organs, or when this state pre-existed, it is often aggravated by the use of turpentine.

In a medium dose (fʒj or fʒij) its effects are not constant. Dr. Ed. Percival [Ed. Med. and Surg. Journ. vol. ix.] saw two drachms given without any unpleasant effect being produced either on the digestive or urinary organs; they acted as an agreeable stomachic, and promoted the catamenia. Mr. Stedman, [Edinb. Med. Essays, vol. ii. p. 42.] on the other hand, has seen this dose produce strangury, bloody urine, suppression of this secretion, fever, thirst, and vomiting. These two cases, however, may be regarded as the opposite extremes; and, in general, we may expect, from a medium dose, a feeling of heat in the stomach and bowels, accelerated peristaltic motion, increased frequency of pulse, diaphoresis, diuresis, and sometimes irritation of the urinary organs. Occasionally it provokes the catamenia.

In a large or maximum dose (fʒiv to f℥ij) its effects are not constant. It usually causes a sensation of abdominal heat, sometimes nauseates, and in general operates as a tolerably active purgative, without causing any unpleasant effects. I have administered from one to two fluidounces in a considerable number of cases of tapeworm, and have rarely seen any ill consequences therefrom. "It has been given," gays Dr. Duncan, [Edinb. Dispensatory.] "even to the extent of four ounces in one dose, without any perceptible bad effects, and scarcely more inconvenience than would follow from an equal quantity of gin." Cases are reported, however, in which it has failed to produce purging, and in such it has acted most violently on the system, accelerating the pulse, depressing the muscular power, and giving rise to a disordered state of the intellectual functions, which several persons have compared to intoxication. A remarkable and well-detailed instance of this occurred in the person of Dr. Copland, [Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ. vol. xlvi. p. 107.] who refers the disorder of the cerebral functions, in his case, to diminished circulation of blood in the brain; while the gastric heat, &c, he ascribes to increased vascular activity in the abdominal region. The oil passed off most rapidly by the skin and lungs (principally by the latter), and the air of the apartment became strongly impregnated with its effluvia. In some cases it causes sleepiness. Purkinje [Quoted by Wibmer, Wirk. d. Arzn.] experienced this effect from one drachm of the oil. Dr. Duncan has sometimes seen it produce "a kind of trance, lasting twenty-four hours, without, however, any subsequent bad effect." The same writer adds, "the largest dose I have known given has been three ounces, and without injury." A scarlet eruption is mentioned by Wibmer as being produced in one case by an ounce of the oil.

Uses.—The following are the principal uses of the oil of turpentine:—

1. As an anthelmintic.—It is the most effectual remedy for tape-worm we possess. It both causes the death of, and expels the parasite from the body. To adults it should be given in doses of an ounce at least. I have frequently administered an ounce and a half, and sometimes two ounces. Occasionally, as in Dr. Copland's case, it fails to purge, but becoming absorbed, operates most severely on the system, causing disorder of the cerebral functions, it is said to be more apt to act thus in persons of a full and plethoric habit. To prevent these ill consequences, an oleaginous purgative should be either conjoined with it, or given at an interval of four or five hours after it. An excellent and safe method of employing it is to combine it with a castor-oil emulsion. Chabert's empyreumatic oil (described at vol. i. p. 263) used by Bremser [Traité sur les Vers Intest. p. 488.] against tape-worm, consists principally of oil of turpentine. A very effectual remedy for the small thread-worm (Ascaris vermicularis) is the turpentine enema.

2. In blennorrhoea.—Oil of turpentine sometimes checks or stops profuse chronic discharges from the mucous membranes. It appears to effect this by a topical influence over the capillary and secerning vessels, in its passage through them out of the system. In many cases, it would appear to confine its operation to the production of an increase of tonicity in the vessels which pour out mucus; but in other instances, especially in blennorrhoea of the urinary apparatus, it seems to set up a new kind of irritation in the affected membrane, which supersedes the previously existing disease. Hence its use is not admissible in acute or recent affections of these tissues. In gonorrhoea and gleet I have frequently employed it as a substitute for balsam of copaiba with success. In leucorrhoea it has occasionally proved serviceable. In catarrhus vesicae or cystirrhoea, it now and then acts beneficially; but it requires to be used in small doses and with great caution. In chronic pulmonary catarrh, either mucous or pituitous, it is said to have been employed with advantage. In chronic diarrhoea and dysentery it has proved advantageous: in these cases it has a direct local action on the affected part, besides exerting its influence over this in common with other mucous membranes after its absorption.

3. In hemorrhages.—In sanguineous exhalations, called hemorrhages, from the mucous surfaces, oil of turpentine may, under some circumstances, act efficaciously. On the same principle that it checks excessive secretion of mucus in catarrhal conditions of these tissues, so we can readily conceive it may stop the exhalation of blood. But it is only admissible in cases of a passive or atonic character, in the absence of plethora and a phlogistic diathesis. [Adair, Med. Facts and Observ. vol. iv. p. 25; Copland, Lond. and Med. Phys. Journ. vol. xlvi. p. 194.] In purpura huemorrhagica it has been recommended as a purgative, by Dr. Whitlock Nichol, [Ed. Med. and Surg. Journ. vol. xviii. p. 540.] Dr. Magee, [Ibid. vol. xxiv. p. 307.] and others.

I have seen it act injuriously in this disease, while blood-letting has seemed to relieve.

4. In puerperal fever.—The use of the oil of turpentine as a specific in this disease was introduced by Dr. Brenan, of Dublin; [Thoughts on Puerperal Fever, and its cure by Spirits of Turpentine, Lond. 1814.] and strong testimonies were subsequently borne to its efficacy by several highly respectable practitioners [Vide Bayle, Bibl. Therap. t. iv.] Dr. Brenan gave one or two tablespoonfuls of the oil, every three or four hours, in cold water, sweetened; and applied flannel soaked in the oil to the abdomen. But the apparent improbability of a stimulant like turpentine curing an inflammatory disease, has prevented many practitioners placing any faith in it, or even giving it a trial. In other instances, the unconquerable aversion which patients have manifested to it, has precluded its repetition. Lastly, it has failed, in the hands of some of our most accurate observers, to produce the good effects which Dr. Brenan and others have ascribed to it, and in some instances has appeared to aggravate the malady. These reasons have been conclusive against its employment, at least in the way advised by Dr. Brenan. But there are two valuable uses which may be made of turpentine, in puerperal fever: it may be given in the form of clyster, to relieve a tympanitic condition of the intestines, and for this purpose no remedy perhaps is superior to it; secondly, flannel soaked in the hot oil may be applied to the abdomen, to cause rubefaction, as a substitute for a blister, to the employment of which several objections exist.

5. In ordinary fever.—As a powerful stimulant in some forms of low fever, oil of turpentine has been well spoken of by Dr. Holst, [Hufeland's Journ. Bd. 20, St. 2, S. 146.] Dr. Chapman, [Elem. of Therap. 4th edit. vol. ii p. 129.] Dr. Douglas, [Dubl. Hosp. Rep. vol. iii.] and more recently by Dr. Wood. [North. Amer. Med. and Surg. Journ. April, 1826.] When the skin is dry, the bowels flatulent, and ulceration of the mucous membrane suspected, it often proves most serviceable.

6. In rheumatism.—In chronic rheumatism, oil of turpentine has long been celebrated. Its beneficial influence depends on its stimulant and diaphoretic operation, and is more likely to be evinced in old and debilitated persons. I have found medium doses occasionally succeed when small ones have failed. But for the most part I have not met with that success with it in chronic rheumatism, to induce me to place much confidence in it. In the form of liniment it has often proved serviceable.

7. In sciatica and other neuralgic affections.—Oil of turpentine was proposed as a remedy for sciatica by Drs. Pitcairn and G. Cheyne. Its efficacy was subsequently confirmed by Dr. Home. [Clin. Experiments.] More recently it has been extensively employed, and with great success, in France, in sciatica as well as in various other neuralgias. [Martinet, Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ March, 1829; Bayle, Bibl. Thérap. t. iv.] But it has proved more successful in those which affect the lower extremities. My own experience does not lead me to speak very favourably of it. In a disease the pathology of which is so imperfectly understood as is that of neuralgia, it is vain to attempt any explanation of the methodus medendi of an occasional remedy for it. I have known oil of turpentine now and then act most beneficially in sciatica, without giving rise to any remarkable evacuation by the bowels, skin, or kidneys, so that the relief could not be ascribed to a cathartic, a diaphoretic, or a diuretic operation.

8. In suppression of urine.—I have seen oil of turpentine succeed in reproducing the urinary secretions when other powerful diuretics had failed.

9. In infantile diabetes.—Dr. Dewees [Treatise on the Physical and Moral Treatment of Children.] has cured three cases of diabetes [?] in infants under fifteen months old "by keeping the bowels freely open, and putting a quantity of spirits of turpentine upon the clothes of the children, so as to keep them in a terebinthinate atmosphere."

10. In nephritic diseases.—In some diseases of the kidneys, as ulceration, the use of oil of turpentine has been much extolled. It has proved successful in renal hydatids. [Bayle, op. cit.]

11. In dropsy.—Oil of turpentine has occasionally proved serviceabio in the chronic forms of this disease. [See the authorities quoted by Dr. Copland, Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ. vol. xlvi. p. 201.] Its efficacy depends, in part, on its derivative operation as a stimulating diuretic; and in part, as I conceive, on its powerful influence over the capillary and secerning vessels, by which it exercises a direct power of checking effusion. It is inadmissible, or is contraindicated, in dropsies accompanied with arterial excitement, or with irritation of the stomach or the urinary organs. When the effusion depends on obstruction to the return of venous blood, caused by the pressure of enlarged or indurated viscera, tumours, &c., turpentine can be of no avail. But in the atonic forms of dropsy, especially in leucophlegmatic subjects, attended with deficient secretion of the skin and kidneys, this oil is calculated to be of benefit. Dr. Copland [Op. cit. p. 202.] has used it in the stage of turgescence, or invasion of acute hydrocephalus, as a drastic and derivative.

12. In spasmodic diseases.—Oil of turpentine has been employed successfully in the treatment of epilepsy, by Drs. Latham, Young, Ed. Percival, Lithgow, Copland, and Pritchard. [Copland's Dict. of Pract. Med. p. 806.] No benefit can be expected from this or any other medicine, when the disease depends on organic lesion within the osseous envelops of the nervous centres. But when the disease is what Dr. Marshall Hall terms centripetal or eccentric (as the convulsion of infants frequently is), that is, takes its origin in parts distant from the cerebro-spinal axis, which becomes affected only through the incident or excitor nerves, we can easily understand that benefit may be obtained by the use of agents like this, which, while it stimulates the abdominal viscera, operates as a cathartic and anthelmintic, and produces a derivative action on the head. A more extended experience of its use in chorea, hysteria, and tetanus, is requisite to enable us to speak with confidence of its efficacy in these diseases, though a few successful cases have been published. [Copland, Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ. vol. xlvi p. 199; Phillips, Med.-Chir. Trans. vol. vi.; Elliotson, Lancet, May, 1830; Gibbon, Lond. Med. Gaz. vol. vii. p. 428.]

13. In inflammation of the eye.—Mr. Guthrie [Lond. Med. Gaz. vol. iv. p. 509.] has employed oil of turpentine in inflammation of the iris and choroid coat, on the plan recommended by Mr. Hugh Carmichael. [Loc. cit. vol. v. p. 836.] In some cases, especially those of an arthritic nature, it succeeded admirably, in others it was of little or no service. It was given in doses of a drachm three times a day.

14. In tympanites.—To relieve flatulent distension of the stomach and bowels, and the colic thereby induced, both in infants and adults, oil of turpentine is a most valuable remedy. It should be given in full doses, so as to act as a purgative; or when, from any circumstance, it cannot be exhibited by the mouth, it may be employed in the form of clyster. Dr. Ramsbotham [Lond. Med. Gaz. vol. xvi. p. 118.] speaks in the highest terms of the efficacy of the oil of turpentine in the acute tympanites of the puerperal state, and thinks that most of the cases of the so-called puerperal fever, which yielded to this oil, were in fact cases of acute tympanites; and in this opinion he is supported by Dr. Marshall Hall.

15. In obstinate constipation.—Dr. Kinglake, [Lond. Med. and Phys. Journ. vol. xlvi. p. 272.] in a case of obstinate constipation, with a tympanitic condition of the intestines, found oil of turpentine a successful cathartic, after the ordinary means of treating these cases had been assiduously tried in vain. Dr. Paris [Pharmacologia.] also speaks highly of it in obstinate constipation depending on affections of the brain.

16. To assist the passage of biliary calculi.—A mixture of three parts sulphuric ether and two parts oil of turpentine has been recommended as a solvent for biliary calculi. [Durande, Observ. sur l'Efficacité du Mélange d'Ether sulph. et d'Huile volatile de Téréb. dans Coliques hépat. produites par des Pierres Biliaires, 1790.] But there is no foundation for the supposition that the relief which may be obtained by the use of this mixture in icterus, and during the passage of biliary calculus, depends on the dissolution of the latter.

17. As an external remedy.—Oil of turpentine is employed externally, as a rubefacient, in numerous diseases, on the principle of counter-irritation, before explained (vol. i. p. 170). Thus in the form of liniment, it is used, either hot or cold, in chronic rheumatism, sprains, sore throat, neuralgic affections of the extremities, &c. In the form of fomentation the hot oil is applied to produce redness of the skin in puerperal peritonitis, as I have already mentioned. As a powerful local stimulant, it was recommended by Dr. Kentish [Essay on Burns.] as an application to burns and scalds, his object being to restore the part gradually, not suddenly, to its natural state, as in the treatment of a case of frost-bite. The practice is most successful when the local injury is accompanied with great constitutional depression. I can bear testimony to its efficacy in such cases, having employed it in several most severe and dangerous burns with the happiest results. In that form of gangrene which is not preceded by inflammation, and is called dry or chronic, oil of turpentine may occasionally prove serviceable, especially when the disease affects the toes and feet of old people. There are many other topical uses to which it has been applied; but as they are for the most part obsolete, at least in this country, I omit any further mention of them. They are fully noticed in the works of Voigtels [Arzneimittell. Bd. ii. S. 260.] and Richter. [Ibid. Bd. ii. S. 71.] Oil of turpentine is the principal ingredient in Whitehead's Essence of Mustard, which contains also camphor and a portion of the spirits of rosemary. St. John Long's liniment consisted of oil of turpentine and acetic acid, held in suspension by yolk of egg. [Dr. Macreight, Lancet, for 1837-8, vol. ii. p. 485.]

Administration.—When given as a diuretic, and to affect the capillary and secerning vessels (in catarrhal affections of the mucous membranes, dropsy, suppression of urine, hemorrhage, &c.) the dose is from six or eight minims to fʒj; as a general stimulant (in chronic rheumatism, chorea, &c.) or to produce a change in the condition of the intestinal coats (in chronic dysentery), from fʒj to ʒij; as an anthelmintic (in tape-worm) or as a revulsive (in apoplexy, in epilepsy previous to an expected paroxysm, &c.), from f℥ss to f℥ij. It may be taken floating on some aromatic water, to which some hot aromatic tincture, as tinctura capsici, has been added; or it maybe diffused through water by the aid of mucilage or an emulsion; or it may be made into a linctus with honey or some aromatic syrup.

1. ENEMA TEREBINTHINAE, L. E. D.; Clyster of Turpentine.—(Oil of Turpentine f℥j; the Yolk of one Egg; Decoction of Barley f℥xix. Rub the oil with the yolk, and add the decoction, L.—The Edinburgh College substitutes plain Water for Barley Water.—The Dublin College orders of Oil of Turpentine f℥j; Mucilage of Barley f℥xvj.)—Used as an anthelmintic in ascarides; as an antispasmodic and purgative in colic, obstinate constipation, and tympanites. Dr. Montgomery [Observations on the Dublin Pharmacopoeia.] says, "it is much used in cases of peritoneal inflammation."

2. LINIMENTUM TEREBINTHINAE, L. D.; Linimentum Terebinthinatum, E.; Turpentine Liniment.—(Soft Soap ℥ij; Camphor ℥j; Oil of Turpentine f℥xvj. "Shake them together until they are mixed," L.—Resinous Ointment ℥iv; Oil of Turpentine f℥v; Camphor ℥ss. Melt the ointment, and gradually mix with it the camphor and oil till a uniform liniment be obtained," E.—Ointment of White Resin ℥viij; Oil of Turpentine f℥v, D.)—Introduced by Dr. Kentish [Essay on Burns.] as adressing for burns and scalds. The parts being first bathed with warm oil of turpentine, alcohol, or camphorated spirit, are to be covered with pledgets of lint thickly spread with this liniment. When the peculiar inflammation, excited by the fire, has subsided, milder applications are then to be resorted to. This liniment may also be used in any other cases requiring the employment of a more stimulant application than the ordinary soap liniment.

The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Vol. II, 3th American ed., was written by Jonathan Pereira in 1854.