Poisons and their Antidotes.

In poisoning, emetics or the stomach pump are indicated if the poison has not yet been absorbed, and where other less severe means are not effective. In order to produce vomiting warm water may be given, or, if necessary, a tablespoonful of mustard stirred to creamy consistency with water; this to be followed by large draughts of water. Generally this is later followed by demulcent drinks, such as flaxseed, whites of eggs beaten tip in water, slippery elm, etc. No emetics should be given, however, in poisoning by acetic, hydrochloric or muriatic, nitric and sulphuric acid..

AcidsAcetic, Hydrochloric, Nitric and Tartaric: Use alkalies, oil, stimulants, demulcent drinks; large draughts. of water or milk with whiting, baking soda or magnesia; strong soap suds to neutralize acid; olive oil; these to be followed by demulcent drinks.
Acid Chromic: Chalk, milk, demulcent drinks; emetics if necessary.
Acid Hydrocyanic: Stomach pump if possible. Ammonia, atropine and diluted cardiac stimulants; artificial respiration. Carbonate of ammonia 3 to 5 grains every 15 to 30 minutes. Fresh air is important,
Acid Nitric: Alkalies, soap, demulcents, stimulants.
Acid, Oxalic: Lime, chalk.
Acid, Sulphuric: Chalk, magnesia, soap, demulcent drinks.
Aconite: Emetics, afterwards powerful stimulants, both externally and internally. Nux vomica has been used with success. Animal charcoal followed by emetics is recommended. Carbonate of ammonia 5 grains every 20 minutes to ½ hour is very good.
Alcohol: Evacuate stomach; coffee, electricity, amyl nitrite, hot and cold douches.
Alkalies: The caustic alkalies, such as ammonia, potassium, soda, etc. Try and induce vomiting with large quantities of water. Give lemon juice diluted, olive oil or vinegar. The white of eggs beaten up with water or demulcent drinks of slippery elm, linseed or flaxseed.
Ammonium and Its Compounds: Demulcents; vegetable acids.
Antimony and Its Compounds: Tannic acid, demulcent drinks, opium, alcohol, external heat, strong tea or coffee; emetics if necessary.
Antipyrin: Recumbent position, warmth, nux vomica, stimulants, oxygen. Artificial respiration.
Apomorphine: Cardiac and respiratory stimulants.
Arsenic: Persulphate of iron solution. Solution of iron chloride and calcined magnesia, mix in ½ cup of water, and when well diluted give to patient. The water should be warm. Ferric hydrate is a good antidote, it combining with arsenic, forming arseniate of iron, which is a harmless salt; 35 parts are needed to neutralize one part of arsenic.
Auri et Sodii Chloridum: Albumen is an antidote.
Belladonna: Emetics, stomach pump, iodine, purgatives, ammonia, cold to head in comatose stage. External stimulants.
Bryonia: Infusion of galls.
Caffeine: Emetics, stimulants, warmth, morphine, atropine.
Camphor: Evacuate stomach, give stimulants. Warmth, hot and cold douches.
Cannabis Indica: Evacuate stomach and give stimulants.
Carbolic Acid: Olive oil until vomiting is produced; if no other remedy is at hand use vinegar or diluted acetic acid. Alcohol is the best in local poisoning from carbolic acid.
Cantharides: Stomach pump, demulcents, opiates and stimulants. Oils are injurious and should not be used.
Chloral Hydrate: First give emetics, then stimulants, such as brandy, digitalis, nux vomica. The heart must be stimulated. Use also local means to stimulate.
Chloroform: Draw out tongue, use faradism. Hot and cold douches. Amyl nitrite or ammonia. Hypodermic injection of strychnine or nitroglycerine. Dilate the sphincter ani by all means as this is the best and quickest way to cause reaction. Slapping the soles of the feet is very good. If taken by mouth evacuate the stomach and give stimulants.
Coal Gas: Fresh air, artificial respiration, ammonia, oxygen, coffee, hot and cold, douches. The first measure should be to put patient in a position the reverse from standing to eliminate gas, and then start respiration by proper means, stimulation being very important.
Conium: Evacuate stomach, then give vinegar.
Croton Oil: Evacuate stomach, demulcent drinks camphor; morphine; stimulants; poultice to abdomen.
Cocaine: 1% solution of glonoine in one or two drop doses is very good. Artificial respiration. Amyl nitrite or other powerful stimulants.
Digitalis: Evacuate the stomach at once by warm water or drinks; sinapisms to wrists and ankles. This should he followed by stimulants. Carbonate of ammonia in 5 grain doses every ½ hour or less. Tannic and gallic acid are good. Patient should in all cases maintain the recumbent position.
Gelsemium: Brandy, quinine or aromatic spirits of ammonia. When indicated tincture of opium may be given with above.
Hyoscyamus: Emetics, stomach pump, stimulants, acids, galvanism.
Iodine: Starch water amyl nitrite. Emetics followed by demulcent drinks if necessary.
Iodoform: See iodine.
Jaborandi: 1/60 grain of atropine will counteract the effect of an overdose.
Lead Poisoning: Sulphate of soda, sulphuric acid and sulphate of magnesia.
Lead Acetate: Evacuate stomach, dilute sulphuric acid; Epsom salts; milk; morphine; potassium iodide to eliminate poison.
Lobelia Inflata: Evacuate stomach; tannic or gallic acid; stimulants; strychnia; warmth; recumbent position.
Morphine: Cocaine is the best antidote; caffeine. Permanganate of potash is very good if poison is not absorbed by the system. Keep patient moving.
Mercuric Chloride: Albumen in some form. Raw whites of egg or flour; evacuate stomach; opium; potassium iodide.
Nitroglycerin: Recumbent position; cold to head; atropine.
Nux Vomica: Chloral in large doses is useful. Morphia. Our best antidote, however, is jaborandi in large and often repeated doses, gradually decreasing doses and giving at longer intervals as symptoms subside.
Nitrate of Silver: Solution of salt, say 4 drachms in warm water as an emetic.
Opium: Active cathartic. The patient should be kept in motion and cold water dashed on the head and shoulders. Give tincture of green coffee. Belladonna. Slap the soles of the feet.
Physostigma: Nux vomica or atropine.
Phosphorus: Emetic of sulphate of copper. Give also copious draughts of water with magnesia. Turpentine is a partial antidote.
Resorcin: Induce vomiting; give olive oil; stimulants.
Rhus Tox.: Grindelia robusta internally and locally is our best remedy. Echinacea in large doses internally and locally in 25% solution is good treatment. Rhus tox. 12d in the primary form is useful in rhus tox. poisoning. In recent cases, locally a solution of sodium hyposulphite is recommended by some. Others have used locally a mild solution of carbolic acid and claim success in recent cases.
Santonin: Evacuate stomach; stimulants; chloral.
Savin: Evacuate stomach; castor oil in large doses. Morphine. Poultice to abdomen.
Silver Salts: Salt and water; evacuate stomach; a large amount of milk.
Strophanthus: Coffee and brandy should be given freely to counter-act.
Stramonium Leaves: Evacuation of the stomach,, after which vinegar and water may be administered, followed by mucilaginous drinks, with strong coffee and any stimulating cordial, according to the prostration.
Snake Bites: Rattlesnakes, etc, Echinacea is our best remedy. In these cases it must be given in very large doses. In adults say 20 to 30 drops every ½ hour, and this to be continued for some hours, then as the severer symptoms subside gradually decrease dose and give at longer intervals. Also apply the tincture pure or little diluted with water to the wound freely. Locally formaldehyde diluted is a good application. In cases where depression is great muriate or carbonate of ammonia in solution may be alternated with echinacea. Locally chloroform on a flannel applied over swelling is recommended.
Tarantula Bites and other poisonous spiders or insects use echinacea as directed under snake bites, only modify the dose in cases that are not so severe. In other words the dose depends on the severity of the case. In cases where depression is great muriate or carbonate of ammonia in solution may be alternated with echinacea.
Tobacco: Carbonate of ammonia 5 grains as a dose is a good antidote.
Veratrum Viride: Morphine or laudanum with brandy, coffee. Recumbent position.

Appearance of Tongue after some Poisons are taken by the Mouth.

Acid, Carbolic: Mucous membrane is shriveled and puckered into folds. The spots where the acid has touched are, if acid is pure, white. If acid is impure spots will be brownish.
Acid, Chromic: Tongue is shriveled and of a lemon yellow color.
Acid, Hydrochloric: Tongue a lemon yellow color.
Acid, Nitric: Tongue is shriveled and of a lemon yellow color.
Acid Nitrate of Mercury: Color of tongue red.
Acid, Sulphuric: Tongue has a parchment-like color or appearance. At first it is white, then gray or brownish gray, then gets covered with a thick slough which when it separates leaves a swollen excoriated patch.
Ammonia: If swallowed in poisonous doses undiluted will make the tongue white.
Cantharides: Produces large lingual blisters and sores.
Corrosive Sublimate: Tongue appears white and shriveled, and the papillae at the base are unusually large.
Potash Caustic: Softens mucous membrane, making it pulpy and easily detached.
Sodium Caustic: Softens mucous membrane, making it pulpy and easily detached.

The Materia Medica and Clinical Therapeutics, 1905, was written by Fred J. Petersen, M.D.