Properties: Tonic, astringent. In large doses laxative.
Use: In small doses it appears to have a mild tonic astringent effect on the gastro-intestinal tract. This action is most marked in the duodenum. In medium doses it is a laxative, while in very extremely large doses it acts as a cathartic. In small or medium doses it has a tendency to bring about normal conditions, correcting under or over-activity of the gastro-intestinal tract and especially so of the latter. As it is a tonic to the stomach and intestinal tract, we think of it in debilitated condition of these parts. For this reason it makes a good adjunct to other indicated remedies in constipation, diarrhea and dysentery. It may be used in form of syrup as a menstruum for other remedies in above conditions.