- Bismuthi Subcarbonas, Bismuth Subcarbonate,—Dose, gr. x-xxx.
- Bismuthi Subnitras, Bismuth Subnitrate,—Dose, gr. x-xxx. Both these salts are heavy, white powders, insoluble in water or alcohol, and so nearly insoluble in the gastric juice, that larger doses may be safely given if uncontaminated with Arsenic. They are administered in powder, emulsion, troche, or simply stirred up in milk.
- Bismuthi et Ammonii Citras, Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate,—small, shining scales, very soluble in water. Dose, gr. j-v.
- *Bismuthi Subiodidum, Bismuth Subiodide,—a heavy, dark-red, impalpable powder, insoluble, stains fabrics deeply. Not used internally.
Physiological Action of the insoluble salts of Bismuth is chiefly that of a local sedative and astringent,—though a minute quantity passes into the blood, where it acts as a tonic, promoting the constructive metamorphosis by stimulating the appetite and digestion. After a time these salts produce constipation, and always give to the stool and tongue a dark clay color, by reason of their conversion in part to a sulphide in the gastro-intestinal canal. Toxic effects, when occurring, are generally due to the presence of Arsenic, with which most of the commercial preparations are contaminated. Poisonous effects have, however, been observed from their absorption when freely used upon a large wound.
The soluble salts, (Acetate, Citrate, etc.), when given in large doses, have an action like that of Mercury, Antimony or Arsenic ;—producing severe gastro-enteritis, fatty degeneration of the liver, etc. The Subiodide has an energetic antiseptic and stimulant action upon wounds, ulcers, etc., promoting the growth of granulation tissue, and preventing the formation of pus.
Therapeutics. The Subcarbonate and Subnitrate are given internally in most forms of disordered digestion, vomiting, and diarrhoea, but large doses are necessary. The best vehicle for them is milk. They are well used in—
|Acute Gastritis.||Vomiting of Children.||Diarrhoea of typhoid fever and phthisis.|
|Gastralgia, Gastric Ulcer.||Vomiting of Pregnancy.||Gastro-intestinal Disorders of Children.|
|Acute Indigestion.||Chronic Diarrhoea.|
|Aphthae, and Stomatitis.|
The Citrate, being soluble, is used in solutions with Pepsin, Strychnine, etc., for various affections of the digestive apparatus, as dyspepsia, gastralgia, feeble digestion. etc.
Locally, these salts may be applied with advantage in cases of—
|Nursing Sore Mouth.||Intertrigo.||Gleet.|
As a dressing for wounds, ulcers, etc., where an antiseptic and stimulating action is desired, there is no application equal to the Subiodide, freely dusted on to the surface after it has been washed and dried.
A Compend of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Prescription Writing, 1902, by Sam'l O. L. Potter, M.D., M.R.C.P.L.