CASTANEA, Tt. J. (Fagus, L.) Chesnut. The C. americana bears chesnuts one fourth the size of European chesnuts. Valuable tree for timber, posts, staves, hoops, &c. the bark tans and dies leather red, the Indians use it for deer skins. The sap of old trees is blackish, and can make ink. Chesnuts are flatulent eaten raw, better boiled or roasted: flour, cakes, bread and soap is made with them in Corsica, Italy, Switzerland, &c. The C. pumila or Chincapin, has a good fruit, tasting like filberts, and affording a good palatable oil: the wood is as durable as Red Cedar; the bark is astringent and tonic, used for agues in the South.