CNICUS, J. Thistles. Bad weeds, the Canada thistle or Cn. arvensis above all. Those with bitter roots tonic, used in poultices by Cherokees. My Cn. edulis of Oregon, has edible roots. Leaves of many hepatic, correct the bile in decoction or powder.

Medical Flora, or Manual of the Medical Botany of the United States of North America, Vol. 2, 1830, was written by C. S. Rafinesque.