Chap. 015. Of Garden Angelica.

Botanical name: 

Angelica, Garden. I. The Names. It is called in Greek, 'Aγγελέχή, (and yet some Authors say it was unknown to the Greeks, unless by some other Name) in Latin Angelica; and so also in English: and by this Name it is called in almost all European Nations, so far as their Dialect will admit: Cordus will have it to be Panax Heracleum, but this I much question; yet according to its Virtues, it may very well be accounted among the number of the All-heals: but its condensed Juice is no Opopanax. Others, as Dodonaeus and Lacuna, will have it to be a kind of Laserpitium, or Laserwort, but of that see lib. 3. cap. 115. and 116. of this present Work

II. The Kinds. There are four several kinds of Angelica; as,
1. The Garden Angelica. (Heracleum sphondylium? -Henriette)
2. The Wild. (Angelica sylvestris. -Henriette)
3. The Water Angelica. (Angelica archangelica. -Henriette)
4. The Mountain kind; of which last we shall say nothing in this Book.

III. The Description. Our Garden Angelica has a Root which is great and large, something pulpy before flowering; but after flowering it becomes woody, extending it self into many and long Arms or Branches, which perish after Seed-time; but if The Plant, by being often cut down, is kept from seeding, the Root will then endure many years together: this Root, if cut or bruised, smells strong, and discharges out of itself an Oily, or rather Gummy, Liquor, which being inspissated Yields no unpleasant Gum, and not much unlike to Opopanax, but yet it is not the same thing. From this Root springs forth divers large and fair spread winged Leaves, half a yard long, and sometimes longer, made of many great and broad ones, set usually one against another on a middle Rib, of a pale, but fresh green colour, and dented about the edges; from among which usually arises one round hollow Stalk, very thick, and four or five feet high, with divers great Joynts, and Leaves set on them, whose foot-stalks do encompass the main Stalk at their bottoms; and from thence also, towards the top, comes forth Branches, with the like, but lesser Leaves at them, and at their tops, there comes forth large round spread Umbles of white Flowers, after which comes the Seed, which is somewhat flat, thick, short, and of a whitish brown colour, two always set together, (as is usual in these Umbelliferous Plants) which is a little crested on the round side.

IV. The Places. It is found in great plenty in Norway and Island, where it grows very high, and whose Inhabitants it is said do eat it, for want many times of other Food, peeling off the Bark: It is also said to grow upon the Rocks, not far from Berwick: But with us, it grows only in Gardens, being first brought hither from beyond Sea.

V. The Times. It flowers in July and August, and the Seed is ripe not long after: if this Seed is suffered to fall of its own accord, it will more certainly grow, than that which is gathered and sown by hand, at any other time.

VI. The Qualities. It is hot and dry in the second degree; but Schroder saith in the third degree, which I believe not. It opens, incides, attenuates or makes thin, digests, Discusses, and is Sudorifick. As to its appropriation, it is Cephalick, Neurotick, Cardiack and Hysterick. It is Bezoardick or Alexipharmick, Vulnerary, and the most famous of all Vegetable Alteratives.

VII. The Specification. It is a peculiar Antidote against the Plague or Pestilence, and all malign, infectious and pestilential Diseases: it is also an Antidote against the Poyson of Mad Dogs, the biting of Vipers, Rattle-snakes, and other Serpents, or Other Venomous Creatures, and, as an All-heal, Cures Wounds by the first Intention: and is singular against the Scurvy in a cold Constitution.

VIII. The Preparations. The Shops sometimes keep hereof,
1. The dryed Root.
2. The Seed.
3. A Distilled Water from the whole Plant.
4. A Juice from the fresh Root and Herb.
5. An Extract with Spirit of Wine.
6. The Root Candy'd.
7. A Distilled Oil which ascends with the Water.
8. A Balsam made with the said Oil, and Oil of Nutmegs.
9. A Common Salt.

Besides all these things, you may make therefrom,
10. A Syrup.
11. A Decoction.
12. A Wine.
13. A Spirit.
14. A Spirituous Tincture.
15. A Saline Tincture.
16. An Oily Tincture.
17. The Powers.
18. An Essence.
19. A Balsam for Wounds.
20. An Ointment.
21. A Cataplasm.
22. A Cerote or Emplaster.
23. A Gargarism.
24. An Errhine.

The virtues and uses of all which follows.

The Virtues.

IX. The dryed Root. Used as a Masticatory, it attracts cold and moist humors out of the Head and Brain, and gives ease in the Tooth-Ach: the Pouder thereof taken to j. dram, is good against the bitings of Mad Dogs, Vipers, and other kinds of venomous Creatures, and also prevails against the Pleurisie, Plague, and all other kinds of infectious Diseases. Take of this Pouder j. dram, Mithridate a dram and half, mix for a Dose; to be given in the aforesaid Cases.

X. The Seed. The Seed has the same Virtues, but not all out so powerful: the Pouder thereof maybe given to j. dram or j. dram and half to Sweat upon: it defends the Heart, Spirits and Blood against Poyson, and is a good preservative against pestilential Infection.

XI. The Distilled Water from the whole Plant. It is Bezoartick and Alexipharmick, good against Sickness at Heart, which it many times eases upon the spot; but is mostly used as a Vehicle to convey other preparations of this Plant, and others of like Virtues in.

XII. The inspissate juice of the Root, and also of the Herb. It warms, comforts and restores, incides and attenuates thick humors, resists Poyson, and is good against the Plague, or malignity of any other Epidemick and infectious Disease: It Cures also the bitings of Mad Dogs, Serpents, &c. and is Pectoral, good against Wind in the Bowels, Coughs, Hoarsness, Phthificks, Asthmas, shortness of Breath, Peripneumonies, and indeed all Diseases of the Brest and Lungs: outwardly applied, it warms, discusses, and resolves hard Tumors; and therefore is good in an Oedema and other like swellings of the Joynts. Dose inwardly is, from j. dram to ij. drams or more, dissolved in Wine and drunk.

XIII. The Extract with Spirit of Wine. It is made of the Caput Mort. of the Herb and Plant after Distillation, &c. given from j. dram to ij. drams in Sack, it provokes Sweat powerfully, and is an Antidote against the Plague or Pestilence, Measles, Small-Pox, Spotted-Fever, Poyson inwardly taken, or outwardly given by the biting of any Venomous Creature. It Cures Agues if given to Sweat upon.

XIV. The Candied Root. It is a pleasant thing, and being often eaten is good against Coughs, Hoarsness; and strengthens, heals and comforts a cold and weak Stomach.

XV. The Distilled Oil which ascends with the Water. It is very powerful against the Pleurisie, Obstructions and Wind in the Bowels, the Colick and Gripings of the Guts, Poyson of all Kinds, and the Infection of the Plague or Pestilence: It is also good against most Diseases of the Brest and Lungs; and has all the Virtues of the Inspissate Juice of the Root, but this is more excellent, subtil, penetrating and effectual: It opens all Obstructions of the Urinary Passages, provokes Urine and the Courses, and expels both Birth and After-birth. Dose from iij. drops to 10, first dropt into Sugar, and mixt well therewith, and then mixt with a Glass of Wine.

XVI. The Balsam with Oil of Nutmegs. Take Oil of Nutmegs or Mace made by expression j. ounce: Balsam of Peru, ij. drams: Oil of Angelica j. dram and half mix them. It eases all pains of the Head, as Head-Achs, Megrims, &c proceeding from a cold cause, being anointed thereon. Inwardly taken to j. Scruple, in a Bolus of Mithridate, or in any proper liquid Vehicle, it has all the Virtues of the Oil aforegoing: besides which, being put into an hollow Tooth, it eases the pains thereof.

XVII. The fixed Salt of the whole Plant. It is a singular thing against the Pleurisie, Peripneumony, Plague, or any pestilential Disease, the Colick, Strangury, and stoppage of Urine; for it absorbs the acid and acrimonious or malign humors, which is the cause of those disaffections; it loosens the Blood, and causes a present and speedy Circulation, and withall it opens all Obstructions of the Lungs, and causes a free breathing. Dose from j. Scruple to j. Dram, in the Distilled Water, or in Wine, or other proper Vehicle.

XVIII. The Syrup. It is Pectoral, good against Coughs, and all sorts of inward Obstructions of the Viscera, chiefly of the Lungs, but is used mostly as a Vehicle to convey other Medicines in. Dose from j. Ounce to ij. Ounces.

XIX. The Decoction. Taken from iiij. (that's a typo: either iij (= 3) or iv (= 4). -Henriette) Ounces to viij. Ounces, it is good against inward bruises, and to dissolve congealed Blood; strengthens the Stomach, and is effectual against the Suffocation of the Mother. It makes an excellent Wound-drink, for such as have Gunshot or Contused Wounds, old Sores, running Ulcers, foetid and callous Fistula's, disposing them to a speedy healing.

XX. The Wine. It is to be made of the roots and stalks, (as is also the Decoction) and has all the Virtues of the Decoction, save that this is much more powerful to all the said Intentions. Dose from iij. to vj. Ounces twice or thrice a day.

XXI. The Spirit. It is either Simple or Compound. The Simple is a most famous Cordial, scarcely inferior to any other Vegetable Cordial in the World: it removes Sickness at Heart and Stomach, prevails against Fainting, Swoonings and Convulsions, whether in Old or Young, warms and comforts a cold and weak Stomach, and as much as may be, restores old Age. I cannot speak enough in the praise of it! It resists Poyson, whether inward or outward, and the Contagion of a pestilential Air. Dose from j. dram to half an ounce, well dulcified with trebble refined Sugar, and then it may either be taken alone, or in a Glass of Wine. The Compound Spirit you may have its Composition, Preparation and Virtues, in Our Pharmacopeia Londinensis, Lib. 4. Cap. 1. Sell. 3. to which you are referred.

XXII. The Spirituous Tincture. It is a great Cordial Restorative, and an excellent thing for such as are wounded, and have old running Sores or Fistula's about them, which have been of long standing, and not easily cured: for it alters and changed the discrasy of the Blood, and makes it more Balsamick, as also the other Juices, and so contributes to healing; besides it has all the Virtues of the Spirit, and indeed much more powerful. It may be taken morning, noon and night, for some considerable time, from ij. drams to half an ounce; in some proper Vehiculum.

ΧΧIII. The Saline Tincture. It is a good Vulnerary, and carries off much of the Morbifick Faeculencies and Defilement by Urine opens Obstructions, of all the Viscera, takes away Heat, Burnings, is good against the Strangury, stoppage of Urine; and other Diseases of the Reins and Bladder: It is good against shortness of Breath, and difficulty of Breathing, because it dissolves the Tartarous Mucilage of the Lungs, &c. Dose from j. dram to iij. drams in the Distilled Water, or in Mead or White Wine.

XXIV. The Oily Tincture. It is good to anoint with in the Gout and Sciatica, and all Pains and Aches of the Nerves, Tendons and Joynts, proceeding from a cold Cause. 'Tis excellent against Convulsions, Cramps, Numedness, Lameness and Palsies, and the Scurvy in a cold Constitution. You may anoint with it outwardly twice a day, and take it inwardly as often, from iv. drops to xvj. or xx. in any proper Liquor.

XXV. The Potestates or Powers. They have all the Virtues of the Oil and Spirit, to which you are referred: 'tis true they are not altogether so strong as the Oil, but they are more subtil and penetrating, and more pleasant to be taken. Dose is from j. dram to iij. or iv. in the Distilled Water or Syrup, or in a glass of Wine, thrice a day.

XXVI. The Essence. This is the most necessary and useful of all the Preparations made of Angelica, and is made of the Juice of the whole Plant. It is good against the Plague, and all sorts of malign infections and pestilential Fevers: It resists Poysons of all sorts, as the bitings of Mad Dogs, Vipers, Rattle Snakes, or any other Venomous Creature. It defends the Vital and Animal Spirits, and is a great preservative against all kinds of Pestilential Infection. It gives ease in all Pains and Torments coming of Cold, and is a most admirable thing against Peripneumonies or Inflamations of the Lungs and Pleurisies. It is a great Pectoral, opening all obstructions of the Brest and Lungs, and thereby gives relief in vehement and old Coughs, Hoarsness, Asthma’s or difficulty of breathing, shortness of Breath, and Phthisicks. It gives present ease in the Colick, Provokes the Terms, hastens and facilitates the Birth, and brings away the After-birth and dead Child. It opens all obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Gall, Bowels, and Mesentery, discusses inward Tumors, and Cures Agues, if given several times, so as to sweat well upon it. And as it mightily strengthens and fortifies the Stomach, so it is one of the best things against a Sufeit in the World, a Vomit or Emetick being given before hand. Dropt into the Eyes it clears them from Clouds, Films, Specks, Pearls, &c. and strengthens the Sight. Dropt into the Ears, it helps their pain and deafness, noise and ringing in them. It heals inward Bruises, dissolves congealed Blood, and is one of the best remedies against a Cold Scurvey. Lastly, It is a most singular Vulnerary, not inferior to any of the All-heals, Confounds, or Wound Herbs: and being given inwardly dietetically it is inferior to no kind of Wound-drink whatsoever, for after an admirable manner, it disposes all Wounds, of what kind so ever, (if curable,) as also running Sores, old Ulcers, and Fistula’s, to a very speedy healing. Dose from j. ounce to iij. or iv. ounces, two or three times a day, according as you see the occasion requires.

XXVII. The Balsam for Wounds. Take of the Juice of the Root and Stalks inspissated to the thickness of new Honey vj. ounces, Gum Elemi iij. ounces, Balsam Capivii, Balsam of Peru, of each ij. ounces, Chio Turpentine j. ounce, mix and melt together, and stir them till they are nearly cold.

Or take Oil Olive a Pound and a half, of the Roots Stalks and Leaves well Bruised together, iv. handfuls, boil till they are Crisp, and press out the Oil; this work repeat three times, with the same quantity of Bruised Roots, &c. Lastly, Press forth the Oil: then to every vj. ounces of this Oil, add Gum Elemi iij. ounces: Balsam Capivii, and Peru, Frankincense, of each ij. ounces: Chio Turpentine j. ounce, mix them well.

These Balsams whether the first, or second, cure all simple Wounds by the first Intention: cleanse running Sores; old Ulcers, and Fistula’s, of all their filth, then Incarnate, and in a very short time heal them, almost to a wonder. Apply’d also, they give ease in the Gout. And in Ulcers, where the Bone is bare, the Pouder strewed on, and the Balsam apply’d over that, covers the Bone with Flesh, and heals it up.

XXVIII. The Ointment. It has the Virtues of the Balsam, but not altogether so powerful: yet a singular Vulnerary, heals Wounds and Ulcers, and eases pains in any part being anointed thereon.

XXIX. The Cataplasm. It is made of the Roots and Stalks shred small and beaten to a Pulp, mixt with Hogs Lard and Crums of Wheaten Bread, till it is of a Consistencie. It is good against the Gout, Sciatica or any External pain from a Cold Cause: and is of singular use being presently apply’d to the Biting of Mad Dogs, Serpents, &c. to draw forth the Poyson: applied to the Region of the Spleen, it eases the pain thereof.

XXX. The Cerote or Emplaster. The Pouder of the Root is made into a Plaister, with the Juyce of the Roots Inspissated to thickness of Honey, and Pitch added to it, with sufficient Quantity of Bees Wax. It draws strongly, and therefore is good to be apply’d to the bitings of Mad Dogs, Vipers, &c. as also to the Sciatica, and the Gout whether in Hands or Feet.

XXXI. The Gargarism. It is made of the Essence and Decoction mixed in equal Quantities, with a third part of Vinegar. It heals Ulcers and Sores in the Mouth, and attracts cold Humors and Rheums, from the Head and Brain; it may be used morning and evening.

XXXII. The Errhine. It is made of the fresh Juyce drawn out of the Root and Stalks, in vj. ounces of which iij. drams of Sal Nitre in fine Pouder is dissolved. Being drawn up the Nostrils evening and morning, it admirably purges the Head and Brain of Cold, thick Flegm, and other Humors, which are the foundations and Causes of many pernicious Diseases.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Peppercat / Lisa Haller.