Chap. 022. Of Red Archangel.

Archangel, Red. I. THE Names. It is called in Greek, (...): In Latin, Lamium purpureum, Urtica iners purpurea, Urtica mortua rubra: In English, Red Archangel, or Red Dead Nettle.

II. The Kinds. It is twofold,
1. The Sweet, called simply Lamium purpureum. (Lamium purpureum. -Henriette)
2. Stinking, (... ... ... / Greek). And in Latin, Lamium foetidum, Urtica iners faetida, Urtica mortua faetida, Urtica Labeo, stinking Dead Nettle or Hedge Nettle.

And of this stinking kind there are divers forts, as
1. Galeopis vera, The true stinking Dead Nettle, or Hedg Netle.
2. Galeopis altera pallida, pale stinking Dead Nettle.
3. Galeopsis altera incana, Hoary stinking Dead Nettle.
4. Galeopsis lutea Dalechampij, Yellow stinking Dead Nettle. (Salvia glutinosa? -Henriette)

III. The Description. 1. The Sweet kind. It has a Root small and thready, perishing every year from whence rises divers hollow square Stalks, some-what Hairy, with Joynts at a good distance, one from another, and also two sad green Leaves, dented about the edges, set opposite one to another, the lower most upon long Foot-Stalks but without any towards the top, which are somewhat round, yet a little pointed at the ends, and a little crumpled and Hairy; round about the upper Joynts with the Leaves, grow sundry gaping Flowers of a paleish red Color, not much unlike Betony Flowers, after which come Seeds, three or four set together in a husk; the whole Plant smells strong, and pleasant enough, not stinking.

IV. The Galeopsis Vera, hat a Root composed of many strings, shooting out fresh heads every Year, and thereby increasing very much; from whence comes forth divers square, soft, and hairy Stalks rising up to be two or three feet or more high, according as the Ground is in goodness; at the Joynts whereof grow two Leaves a piece upon Foot Stalks, not much unlike to Nettle Leaves, but that they are soft and somewhat hoary, and not at all stinging, of a strong unpleasant sent, especially if growing in shaddowy places, but nothing so strong if growing in the open Fields: at the tops of the Stalks grow the Flowers, set in Rundles, for or five at a space, and many of them one above another in manner of a spiked head, everyone standing in a greenish Husk, like unto those of the other more pleasant scented Dead Nettles, but not so great, nor of so sad a red or purplish Color, especially the Heads or upper parts; but the lower Labels or Lips have some white spots in them: after the Flowers are fallen, there grows within those Husks, small round, but somewhat rough Seed, four of them for the most part stand together, which are of a black Color when Ripe. (Stachys sylvatica? -Henriette)

V. The Pale stinking Dead Nettle, has a pretty thick Root and full of Strings, from whence rises up a long, square, hairy Stalk or Stalks, out of which comes several pale green broad Leaves, set upon long hairy Foot Stalks, and higher up, such like but lesser Leaves thereon, with sundry small pale yellowish Flowers, set together at spaces, which turn into small round pointed Heads, with small blackish Seed in them; the whole Plant is of a strong stinking smell. (Scrophularia vernalis? -Henriette)

VI. The Hoary stinking Dead Nettle, has a Root much like to the former kinds, from whence comes Stalks square, soft, and hoary, but shorter, very slender and weak, creeping as it were by the Ground, with two Leaves set by the Joynts likewise, soft and hoary, but more hoary underneath, and not so large as the first kind of Galeopsis: the top of the Stalks end in a long spike of purplish Flowers, set in Rundles as in the other, after which comes the Seed, Black also as the former. (Galeopsis tetrahit? -Henriette)

VII. The yellow stinking Dead Nettle, has much such a like Root as the others, whence comes forth square low Stalks, not above a Cubit or a Foot and a half high, with long Leaves set thereon by couples, very like unto Nettle Leaves, smaller below next the Ground, than up higher upon the Stalks, being hairy, but not so stinking as the first, yet smelling very strong: the Flowers grow in long spiked Heads in like manner, but are all yellow when fully blown, consisting of two Leaves, the uppermost whereof is not so much hooded as the former, but is as it were a cover to the lower, and turns it self up again, having some yellow threads in the middle; while it is in the bud, it is somewhat redish, after which comes forth the Seed in the same Husks.

VIII. The Places. Red Archangel grows almost ever where, by Ditch and Hedg sides, throughout the whole Kingdom.

The first Galeopsis grows very frequently in England in divers Counties, as at Hamstead, going from the Town to the Church, and many other Places from Hamsted-Heath to London, as also at Greenwich in some places not far from the Park.

The second Kind, grows also wild by Hedg and Ditch sides, and as a Weed in many Gardens.

The two last Kinds, are not found to grow wild at all with us, but only nourished up in Gardens.

IX. The Times. They Flower for the most part all Summer long, beginning in May, and all June and July, and the Seed is ripe not long after the Flowers are past.

X. The Qualities. Red Archangel is hot and dry in the first Degree, but the Galeopses are hot in the second Degree, and dry in the third Degree, much of the temperature of Horehound, They are all Attenuating, something Repercussive and Astringent: and by Appropriation, they are Cephalick, Splenetick, Hysterick and Arthritick; and operate only as Alteratives.

XI. The Specification. They dry up moist Humors in Ulcers and Fistula's, are Vulnerary, and stop the overflowing of the Terms in Women.

XIII. The Preparations. From Archangel there are,
1. A Pouder of the Seed.
2. A Conserve of the Flowers.
3. A Juice of the Plant.
4. An Essence.
5. A Spirituous Tincture.
6. A Saline Tincture.
7. An Oily Tincture.
8. A Distilled Water of the whole Plant.
9. A Decoction.
10. An Oil.
11. An Ointment.
12. A Cerote or Emplaster.
13. A Cataplasm.

The Galeopses are used in
14. A Decoction.
15. A Juice.
16. An Essence.
17. A Syrup.
18. An Ointment.
19. A Balsam.

The Virtues of the Red Archangel.

XIII. The Pouder of the Seed. It is dry and binding, and of good use in stopping Fluxes of the Bowels, as the Diarrhea, Dysenteria, Lienteria, and Hepatick Flux. Dose from half a dram to j. dram in Red Wine.

XIV. The Conserve of the Flowers. Eaten morning, noon, and night, the quantity of a large Walnut at a time, it has been found by Experience to be effectual against the overflowing of the Courses, and all Fluxes of Blood whether by the Mouth, Stool or Urine; but this more especially, to a Pound of the Conserve, ij. ounces of Crocus martis Astringens be added.

XV. The Juice of the Plant. It is Antihysterick, represses Vapors in Women and Fits of the Mother, opens obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, and is good for Wounded Persons to Drink. Dose ij. or iij. ounces in Wine.

XVI. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the Juice, besides which it is an exceeding good thing for such as have old running Sores, Faetid Ulcers, and Malign Fistula's running upon them; it corrects the Malignity of the Humors, drys them up and disposes the Ulcers to healing. Dose from j. to iij. ounces: Outwardly it is good to wash the Ulcerations withal, and to inject into Fistula's.

XVII. The Spirituous Tincture. It stops Fluxes of the Belly of what kind so ever; and the overflowing of the Courses in Women, quickens and chears the Spirits, drives away Melancholy, makes the Heart merry. Dose iij. drams.

XVIII. The Saline Tincture. It operates by Urine, and carries off much of the Morbifick matter in such as are afflicted with Ulcers, Sores and Fistula's, by the Urinary Passages; and is good against inward Bruises, dissolving the congealed Blood. Dose from j. dram to ij. drams, in a Glass of the Distilled Water.

XIX. The Oily Tincture. Taken from vj. Drops to xx. or xxx, according to Age and strength, in some proper Vehicle, it has been found to be good against Quartan Agues. Outwardly applied or anointed, it is good against all Pains and Aches, as also the Gout in any part proceeding from a cold Cause: it strengthens the Nerves, and is good against the Palsie.

XX. The Distilled Water. It is used chiefly as a Vehicle to convey the other Various preparations of this Herb in. Dose vj. ounces.

XXI. The Decoction. Made in Wine, and Drank, to vj. Or viij. ounces; it strengthens the Bowels much, it is good to open obstructions, and softens the hardness of the Spleen: Fomenting also hot with the same upon the Region of the Spleen: or applying the hot Herb also thereon, for some time.

XXII. The Oil, made by boiling, the bruised Herb in Oil Olive, &c. It is good to discuss or resolve cold and hard Swellings in any part of the Body, Chiefly those in the Neck and Throat proceeding from the Kings-Evil.

XXIII. The Ointment. It has the same Virtues, besides which it is very good to discuss Inflammations, and heal all green Wounds by cleansing them, drying, and closing up their Lips.

XXIV. The Cerote or Emplaster. It heals also green Wounds, cleanses old ulcers, and resists their Malignity; puts a stop to their fretting, corroding, and spreading, and brings them to a speedy healing.

XXV. The Cataplasm, made with the beaten Herb, and Hogs Lard, Vinegar and Salt, boiled to a softness and consistency, and then apply'd to hard and Scrophulous Tumors whether in the Neck or other parts, it helps to discuss and resolve them; gives ease in the Gout, Sciatica, and other Joynt-Aches, strengthens the Nerves, and eases their Pains, caused by Cramps, Convulsions, &c. it is good against Inflammations, and the Malignity of old running Sores. A Cataplasm of the raw Herb beaten up with Vinegar, being apply'd to the Nape or the Neck, stops bleeding at the Nose: and helps Whitloes, being apply'd to the roots of the Nails.

The Virtues of the stinking Archangel or Dead Nettle.

XXVI. The Decoction. It is good to bathe places Swelled with hard Kernels. Wens, Inflamations, or Scrophulous Tumors in the Neck, under the Ears, Jaws, Armholes and Groin; and if the Decoction is made in Wine, and drunk to vj. or viij. ounces for a Dose, it is a good Traumatick, and wonderfully helps all inward Wounds, Hurts, Bruises, Falls, or the like, and is singular good for the Spleen and the Diseases thereof

XXVII. The Juice. It has all the aforegoing Virtues; besides which being applyed warm with Vinegar, to the Hemorrhoids or piles, when they are very painful and much Swelled, it gives ease, and discusses the Tumor. It is good also against Wans, Figgs, Criste, Condylomata, and the like which grow in and about the Fundament. Dose inwardly from j. to iv. ounces.

XXVIII. The Essence. It has all die Virtues both of the Decoction and Juice, and may be used as a Wound Drink, for which purpose it is a most singular thing; and contributes very much to the healing of Ulcers, Fistula's and other inveterate and running Sores, which resist most other Remedies. Dose from ij. ounces to iv. twice a day: Outwardly it is good also to wash Sores, Ulcers and Fistula's with, and cleanses them from their filth.

XXIX. The Syrup. It may be a Vehicle to mix with the Essence for all the purposes aforesaid, as also against Flushings, Vapors, and fits of the Mother, or Hypochondriack melancholy.

XXX. The Ointment. Being anointed upon the Region of the Spleen, it eases the pain, and softens the hardness thereof; and anointed on the Fundament, it is good against Clifts, Warts, Figgs Piles, and other Swellings thereof. It dissolves or Discusses Wens, Kernels, and hard and Scrophulous Swellings of the Neck and Throat, and other hard and Oedematous Tumors in any other part of the Body.

XXXI. The Balsam. It is of singular use, and much Commended against Gangreens, Cancers Corroding Fistula's, and all manner of other running Sores, inveterate and sordid Ulcers happening in what Place soever.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter has been proofread by Nick Jones.