Chap. 057. Beans Field or Horse.
I. The Names. It is called in Greek, υόαμοσ ανειοϛ : in Latin, Faba Equina, Faba Minor and by Dodonaus, Phaselus Minor, Faba agria, Vel Rustica: and in English, Field Bean, and Horse Bean. Κύαμοϛ Gracis diui creduntur quia funt έιϛ τό χύέιν δενοι χί άιποι τΰ χύϛιν . Ray.
Π. The Kinds. We shall take notice but of three sorts of these Beans.
The First Kind, is our Common Field Bean, which is usually sown with us or Horses and Hogs; and is Named as afore declared. (Vicia faba -Henriette)
The Second Kind, is that which the Greek: call Πύανοσ, and by some Κύαμοϛ ϛγеιοϛ: in Latin Faba Sylvestris, Faba Graca; and in English, The Wild Bean.
The Third Kind, is the Old Greek Bean, called Κύαμοσ υλληνιχοσ: in Latin, Faba Veterum Graecorum , Faba Sylvestris Graecorum antiquorum: in English, The Greek Bean of the Ancients. (Vicia narbonensis -Henriette)
III. The Description. The Field or Horse Bean has a short Root, going down right, with many small strings springing from it, which perishes every Year; from whence springs forth one, two, or more Stalks, which grow upright like the Garden Bean, not leaning down; the Leaves are like unto the Garden Bean, without any dents on the edges, but they are smaller, more at a Joint, and growing closer: the Flowers stand also more at a Joint, lesser, and more Purplish Colour: the Cods succeeding them are long and round, smaller than the Garden Kind, and standing upright: within which are small longish round Beans, which when they are Ripe, are some blackish, some brownish), and some of a dirty yellow.
IV. The Wild Bean differs in its description not much from the former, save that it is Something less in the Magnitude of the Plant, and the Beans themselves are black and round.
V. The Greek Bean has a Root which goes not deep nor far into the Ground, but sends forth many long fibres or string, dying every Year, from whence springs forth two or three long flat Stalks, with two edges, lying or running upon the ground, if it has nothing to rise or clasp upon. The Stalks branch out on every side into stalks of Leaves, four commonly set thereon, by two and two, with a distance between them, like unto the Garden Bean, and each Branch bending in a long Clasper. The Flowers grow singly at the Joynts of the Branches, under the Leaves, and are of a kind of dead, dull, purple Colour, with some paleness at bottom of them: after which succeed long and somewhat flat Cods, with two sharp edges, dented about, and a little hooked or bowing, green at first, but afterwards black and hard when they are Ripe. In these Cods are contained four or five, or more round Beans, very black, and as large as Pease.
VI. The Places. The First grows with us every where, in Fields, and are chiefly Sown for the Food of Hoggs and Horses, whence their Name: The Second and Third sorts grow with us only in Gardens but are Natives of Spain and Greece, where they are plentifully to be found.
VII. The Times. They all Flower in April, and May, and June, and that gradually, for they are long in Flowering; and the Seed is Ripe sometimes in July; but mostly in August and September.
VIII. The Qualities. Our Field Beans are hot and moist in the first Degree, suppurative, strengthening and spermatogenetick: nephritick, diuretick, and alterative: and used externally, as in Washings, they are of an abstersive faculty. The Wild Bean, and Faba Veterum, or Greek Bean, which Dioscorides, Galen, and other Greek Authors intend, when they give us their Virtues, are used to all the same purposes and intentions ascribed to these Our Field Beans.
IX. The Specification. They have a peculiar Faculty to remove Obstructions of Urine; and to make a clear passage for the Water.
X. The Preparations. They are exactly the same with the former, as
1. A Distilled Water from the Flowers and green Cods.
2. A Decoction of the same.
3. An Essence.
4. A Volatile Spirit, Oil, and Salt.
5. The Ashes and Fixed Salt.
6. A Broth of the Beans.
7. A Cataplasm of the Meal.
XI. The Distilled Water. It is used as a Vehicle for other Preparations, and as a cosmetick for the Face and Skin, to take away Scurf, Morphew, Tannings, Sunburnings and other like Deformities, by often washing therewith, and letting it dry on.
XII. The Decoction of Cods and Plant, opens Obstructions of the Viscera, but chiefly of the Reins, Ureters and Bladder, and provokes Urine.
XIII. The Essence, Is said to dissolve the Stone in Reins or Bladder, but then I conceive it must be a soft and gritty Stone, not of a Flint like Substance: it increases Seed, and provokes Lust.
XIV. The Volatile Spirit, Oil, and Salt of the dry'd Beans, They are made as those of Garden Bean's chap. 55. Sett. 16. and have all the same Virtues, Uses and Doses.
XV. The Ashes and Fix'd Salt. They are Diuretick, and powerfully provoke Urine, and therefore are singularly good against the Dropsy Sarsites, Gout, Stone, Gravel, and Jaundice. Dose a scruple in White Wine, morning and night.
XVI. The Broth of the Beans. It has the same Virtues, but not all out so Powerful.
XVII. The Cataplasm. Made with Wine, it is good against suffussions and Blows of the Eyes, and is profitably applyed to ease the Pains of the Gout. Made with Wine Vinegar, and applyed, it takes away the Inflammation of the Testicles, and Womens Breasts, and apply'd where Hairs are first and immediately plucked forth, it consumes their Nutriment, and in some measure hinders their growing again. And beaten up with Whites of Eggs, it is good against the Pin and Web, and helps the Watering of the Eyes. If made with Vinegar and equal parts of Barley Meal, it is said to wast away the Swellings of the Kings Evil. If made up with equal parts of Meal of Fenugreek, it takes black and blew spots, occasioned through Blows, and Discusses hard Swellings under the Ears. If the Cataplasm is made with Oxymel, it is good against the Stinging of Scorpions, and Bitings of Venomous Beasts, Discusses Tumors caused by Blows and Bruises, abates the Milk in Womens Breasts, and eases Wounded Nerves, if apply'd upon the Wound.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.
This chapter was proofread by Therese Richardson.