Chap. 121. Of Charlock.
I. The Names. I do not find that this Plant JL was known to the Greeks, and lb have-no Greek name for it. It is called in Latin, Rapiflrum : and in English, Charlock, Carlock, and Chad-lock.
II. 77v Kinds. Some would have it to be a Species of the Wild Turnep, others of Sinapi; some of Eryfimum ; others refer them to the Lampfana^ oi Dioscorides: but it took its name Rapiflrum, ifi-nnlitudine Rapifoliorum, for which reason it was that some have called it Wild Turnep. But taking it as Genus, There are several kinds of them to be found in England, viz. 1. Rapiftrum Commune, Common Charlock. 2. Rapijlrum Sylveflre, five Arvo-rum, Wild, or Field Carlock : M^t thiol us calls it Lampfana ; fo also Anguilara, Lonicerus, Lugdu-nenfis, Gerard and Gefner, in Hortis: Fuchfius and Turner call it Irion : Bauhin, Rapiflrum store luteo. 7,. Rapift rum alter urn Arvorum, A second Fielc Charlock ; which is also called by all the former names. 4. Rapiflrum album Articulatum, White Field Charlock which is the Lampfana of Turner and Ctfalpinus, who also calls it Radix Svlveflris : The third Sinapi agrefle οϊ Tragus: Rapiflrum flore albo Eruca foliis Lobeli Armor acta Tabermontani · Rapiflrum flore albo filiqua articulataBauhini. %. Rapiflrum Alonofpermon Bauhini,One Grained Charlock. 6. Rapiflrum Aquatic urn, Water Charlock.
them, which perishes when the Seed is ripe; from this Root rises Leaves almost like to the Rapum Svlveitre, but lesser, and smaller at the bottom, not jagged: among which rises a rough, slender, brittle, and somewhat hairy Stalk, a foot and half, or two feet high, having larger Leaves than the former, and somewhat Jagged and Waved : The Stalk towards the top is divided into many Arms and Branches, on which do grow little yellowish Elowers, which make a great flew; but sometimes they are found to be of a purplish color-, which being past there follows long Pods, sharp towards the end, containing Jevcral flattijh Seeds, of a whitijh yellow color.
III. The Descriptions .The MA of these has slender Roots with several fibres or firings hanging at
IV. The second, has a Root long and white, which grows woody when it runs up to Stalk and Seed, and perishes after Seed time. From which Root springs forth many long and broad rough Le(roes, hairy and green, lying upon the ground round about the Root, somewhat deeply gajhed in on the edges, and round pointed : from among which rises up one slender hairy Stalk,seldom many, branched from the middle upwards into many Arms, with divers lesser Leaves on them to the tops ; on which fland many yellow Elowers, having four or five Leaves a piece, which in a Hemp Land, or Corn Field make a mighty and glorious fhew ( but much to the Owners difprofit:) after these Flotcers are past, there follows long rough Pods, not very slender, with divers round, small, reddijh brown Seed therein, like unto Ah/flard Seed, but larger, as quick and flarp in tajle, but more bitter than it.
V. The third has a long Root, with many fibres at it, like the former, which dies every year, fronl whence spring up ?nany large "Leaves waved in, λ tie rough or hairy, but not cut or jagged as the former, the upper Leaves being whole and smaller. The Stalk rises up rough and hairy like the others, of about eighteen Inches high, or more, fpread out into many Branches h at the tops of which are a great
number of pale yellow flowers, which being paffed away, long pointed Pods follow, rough like the former, and with a ftjew of divisions in them, in which are contained little round, and almost Afl-colored, sometimes reddish Seed.
VI. The fourth has a Root small and long in some Plants, in others thicker and rounder, near to the bigness of a small long rooted Turnep, which is Annual, or periling every Year : Prom this Root there comes forth fewer Leaves than in the former, but smaller and rougher, and in some little or nothing jagged, but in others more : the Stalks are rougher and lower than the others, which also fpread forth into Branches towards the top : and on the tops of which grow the flowers, not so many as in the Common, or second kind, nor yet altogether so great or so yellow, but either of a pale yellow, or more white after which come forth smaller rough Pods, with Joints or divisions in them in which are contained smaller brownijh Seed, nothing near so fiery or hot, as in the first or second kind: of this kind also, same have been found with a purplish Flower.
V1T. The fifth has a Root long and white, and somewhat Fibrous from whence spring ,forth its lower Leaves, which are somewhat large, thick, and hairy, of a very fresh green color, tern on both edges at the bottom, but broader at the ends, where they are only waved : The Stalks alfg are a little rough and hairy, of about twelve or fixTeen Inches, or more, high, jet with a jew such Leaves as the lowest, but smaller ; towards the top they branch forth into long fpikes of gold yellow Flowers, the length oj three, jour, or five Inches ; which being past, there comes in their places small, round, ft riped Heads or Husks, with a small point at the end; containing in every one of them but one Seed, from whence came, the name.
VIII. The fixth, which is The Water Charlock, has a Root long, tough, and full of firings,, creeping and putting forth many Stalks ; from whence comes forth Stalks of a Lard high, andjometimes more, with many Branches, slender and smooth, in rejpeU to any of the reft, which are set with rough ribbed Leaves, deeply indented about the lower parts of the Leaf. The Flowers grow at top of the Branches in Vmble or Tuft jajhion, sometimes of one color, and sometimes of another : the Seed Veft'els are jhort and jmall, containing in them small Seed.
IX. The Places. The first has been found growing in divers places of England,2ls going from Shore-ditch by Bednal-Green to Hackney : The second, third, and fourth are found growing in Corn Fields, Hemp Lands, in Barren Grounds, and often by the Borders of Fields and Hedges, Bank-fides and Un-tilled Grounds, and such other like places : The tilth grows in many places of Germany, and with us is nourish'd up in Gardens.^ The fixth grows in moist Meadows, and Marsh Grounds, and in Water Ditches, and other plaihy places.
X. The Times. They flower all April, and continue flowering till the Summer is far fpent; and the Seed ripens in the mean time.
XL The Qualities. The Seed is hot and dry in the third Degree ; inibmuch as some do make ule of it .instead of Muftard Seed, or mingle it therewith. It is Cephalick, Neurotick, Stomatick, Ne-phritick and Hysterick; Aperitive, Abfterfive, and Diuretick : Alterative, Ptarmick, Mafticative, and Alexipharmick.
Xlt. The Specification. It opens the Obstructions °> Brain and Nerves, and is good against the Pair 8e, weakness and trembling of the Nerves.
XIII. The Preparations. You may have from the Seed, i. An Expressed Oil. 2. An Errhine. A Sauce imitating Muftard. 4. A Spirit, like Spirit of Scurvy-graJs. 5. A Spirituous Tincture. 6. An Oily Tincture. 7. A Saline Tincture. 8. A Cataplasm.
XIV. The Oil by Exprejfion. It difculTes any cold Tumor, and eases pains proceeding from a colct Cause, being anointed upon the part warm, and well rubbed in. It is of good use to make Soap-withal, instead of Oil Olive, and much exceeds Train or Whale Oil for that purpose ; and where Butter and other Oil are wanting, it may ferve to Fry with.
XV. The Errhine. It is made of the Seed by grinding it with fair Water, in a Boul, with a Bullet, then straining the thin of liquid part trom the grofs: this liquid part being sometimes fnufft up the Noftrils, so as it may come out again at the Mouth, purges the Head and Brain effectually, by the Noftrils, of cold, moist and mucilaginous Humors, and by that means prevails against vehement and inveterate Head-achs, proceeding from a cold cause, Vertigo's, Lethargies, Cams, Apoplexy, Epi-lepfie, Convulsions, Palfie, and other like Diftem-pers of the Brain and Nerves. And I have known by often ufing of it, in some who have been Dim lighted, or almost Blind, and in others who have had a constant flux of Rheum into their Eyes, for some considerable time, that it has cleared the fight, diverted the Rheum, and strengthened the Eyes so admirably, as if they had never ailed any thing at all.
XVI. The Sawce. It is made as Muftard, and so to be used : it strengthens the Stomach, sharpens the Appetite, and causes a good Digestion : but it is nothing near so pleasant as Muftard : applied immediately upon a Contusion where the skin is not broken, it difculTes the Tumor, and prevents the afflux of Humors to the part.
XVII. The Spirit. It is admirable against the Scurvy in a cold habit of Body; it excites the Animal Spirits, and causes liveliness and cheerfulness in such as are Sleepy, Drowfie and Lethargick : and is indeed an excellent thing for such conitantly to take οζ who are Paralytick, or troubled with numbedness, tremblings, and other weakneifes of the Nerves more especially, if it is also bathed down along the Back-bone, and parts affected, Morning and Evening, and also taken from one dram to two drams, or more, Morning, Noon, and Night, in some convenient Antiparalytick, and Antiscorbutick Vehicle.
XVIII. The Spiritous Tincture. It has the Virtues of the Spirit, and in some Cases more effectual, being more Stomatick than that is and being bathed upon any part afflicted with a cold Tumor or Swelling, or with cold and moist Humors, or with Rheumatick Pains proceeding from cold, it warms and comforts the Part, difculTes the Humors, and eases the Pain: mixed with White Wine, and used as an Errhine, it purges the Head and Brain of Cold Phlegmatick Matter which ofsends it, cauiing Head-achs, Vertigo's, Drowiiness, Lethargies, &c.
XIX. The Oily Tincture. It is used chiefly outwardly, in Gouts from a cold cause, in which it gives admirable ease. As also in Numbness, Trembling of the Limbs, and Palsies, in all which Cases, it ought to be bathed all along upon die Back bone, horn the Vertebra of the Neck, almost to the Anus, and this to be repeated oftentimes, and well rubbed in both Morning and Evening; the parts af-
fected are like wile to be bathed with the same. Anointed upon a Nerve prickt or hurt, it eases the fain and Anguifh, and abates the Tumor, if any be
XX. The Saline Tincture. If given inwardly, from half a dram to two drams, it opens Obltru-£lions of the Urinary parts, and of the Womb but it is of greatest use in outward Applications against Tanning, Sun-burning, Scurfy Morphew, Dandriff, and other like Delcedations of the Skin for it cleanses after a singular manner, by reason of its Volatile Particles.
XXI. The Cataplasm. Made of the Green Herb, but principally of the Seed, with the addition of a quarter part of Mithridate, and so much Orrice pouder as will bring it to a consistence, and applied to cold flatulent Tumors, it difculfes them : if Nature defigns the Tumor for breaking, it brings it to maturation or ripeness, and that in a little time, becaule of its heat. If it is applied to the Gout, it eaf-s the Pain, and attracts the Morbifick Humor through the Pores of the Skin, in manner of Sweat.