Chap. 136. Of Clevers, or Goose-Grass.

Cleavers. This chapter hasn't been proofread yet.

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The Names. It is called in Greek, Άπία**^ X as the most usual Name, but it has also several others, φ<λίί_·/οΓ, φίλΑτίβχον, as Galen out of Hippocrates faith h and ^λό**^o-, as Dioscorides [fc Qecaufe the Seed is Navel fashion: ) it is also caded, c/A^a^o-, quafi hominis amans, and *;;*7;a;o-, for the same reason. In Latin, Aparine, Uppa minor Plinij, Afperugp : In English, Clevers, and Gop/e-grass

II The Kinds. They are chiefly twofold, viz.

1. Aparine Vulgaris, The common or rough Clevers

2. Aperme Lruts, Smooth Clevers, not mentioned by any Author but Thaluts, and from him by Parkinson.

HI. The Descriptions. The Common Rough Clever has a small and very fibrous Root, spreading much in the Earth, but dying every Year from whence rise up divers very rough square Stalks not bigger than the lower part of a naked Wheat Straw, creeping up so as to be sometimes two or three yards high, if it has any tall Bushes or Trees near it, or any Hedge on which it may Climb, but yet without any Claspers _·, otherwise they are much lower, or lye upon the ground, being full of Joints _·, from every one of which shoots forth a Branch besides the Leaves, which are commonly fix in number, Jet round the Stalk almost like a Star, or the Rowel of a Spur. From between the Leaves at the Joints, towards the tops of the Branches come forth very small white flowers, every one upon a small thready footstalk, which after they are fallen, two small round rough brown colored Seeds ( but at first green ) joined together like a pair of Testicles, do appear. When they are ripe, they grow hard, and of a whitish brown color,, having a little hole or hollowness on the side (some _· what like unto a j\avel) on which the Stalk grows to them. The Stalks, Leaves and Seeds are Jo very rough, that they will cleave almost to any thing which shall touch them, and seem to be a little clammy withal.

IV. The Smooth Kind has a Root like the foregoing, and grows much like unto it, but it neither grows Jo high, nor are the Leaves J~o great, and net at all rough or βieking to what it touches, as the former is. The Leaves are the same in number, and fiand in the same order, and at the Joints also: the Flowers are small and white, consisting of four very little Leaves, like the other, and give such like Seed growing together in Pairs, but smooth alfe, and not rough as the first is. There is another sort of this Smooth Kind, but it little differs from it, excepting in the Seed, which is Jaid to be rough, much like unto a Coriander Comfit.

V. The Places. The first Kind grows by Hedge sides and Ditch banks in most places of England, and almost every where in Gardens, it being there nothing but a Weed, and is rooted out with much labor and diligence, for that it will run upon every thing it grows next, and be apt to choak and kill it, it not Weeded up. The second is a Native of Spain, but grows in England in the Gardens of the Curious, where it is apt to be as troublesome as the other is, if it is fufteried to Sow its Seed.

VI. The Times, They Flower in the end of May, and in June and July _·, and the Seed is ripe, and falls by the end of July, or in August, from which it springs affefh the next Year, and not from the old Roots.

VII. The Qualities. It is hot and dry in the beginning of the first Degree, according to Galen's Judgment h and are Aperitive, Abstersive, and Astringent, Traumatick, or Vulnerary, Alterative and Alexipharmick.

VIII. The Specification. It is peculiar for flopping Fluxes, and healing Green Wounds.

IX. The Preparations. You may have therefrom,
1. The Green Herb.
2. A liquid Juice.
3. An Essence.
4. A Decoction.
5. A Pouder.
6. An Ointment.
7. A Balsam.
8. A Cataplasm.
9. A Distilled Water.
10. The Oily Tincture.

The Virtues.

X. The Green Herb. Parkinson says, that it serves the Country People-well, instead of a ftram-er, to cleanse and clear their Milk from Straws, Hairs, or other gross things which fall into it.

XI. The Liquid Juice. Made of the Herb and ;Seed together, being taken in Wine, is good against

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the bitings of Vipers, or the great Spider Phaiangfunt, by preserving the Heart from their Poyson, as Dioscorides and Pliny from him lay. Galen lays, that it cleanses moderately, and drys, and is of subtil parts. It is generally taken in Broth to make such Lank and Lean, as are apt to grow Fat. It is also good to heal Wounds, and stanch Blood, being applied : and Matthiolus says, it is commended to conglutinate, or dole the Lips of Green Wounds : dropt into the Ears, it eases their pain, though vehement.

XII. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the Juice, but more powerful _·, besides which, it is very effectual to strengthen the Bowels, and stop all sort of fluxes of the Belly whatsoever : and being taken thrice a day, it helps the yellow Jaundice.

XIII. The Decoction in Wine. It is Stomatick, causes Leanness, stops Bleeding, and being drank twice or thirce a day promotes the healing of Wounds, old running Sores and Ulcers.

XIV. The Pouder. It is an excellent Vulnerary, and conglutinates the Lips of Green Wounds, being strewed thereon : it also cleanses old running Sores and Ulcers, dries up their moisture, and induces their healing. Taken inwardly to a dram in Red Port Wine, Morning and Evening, it flops spitting, vomiting, and pissing of Blood, and cures the Bloody Flux, as also other Fluxes of the Bowels _·, and being applied, the bleeding of Wounds.

XV. The Ointment. Being made with Auxungia, i. e. Hogs-Lard, or other proper fat body, and anointed upon the part affected, it helps all forts of hard Swellings, or Kernels ( proceeding from the King's-Evil) in the Neck,Throat, or other Parts.

XVI. The Balsam. It is a singular Vulnerary, and cures Green Wounds (not Contused, Lacerated, or otherwise composed) at one, two, or three Dressings. It digests Apostems, as also complicated Wounds, then cleanses them, incarnates, dries, and suddenly heals them. It is indeed, a very singular Vulnerary, or Wound Balsam.

XVII. The Cataplasm. Being applied to any wound or place which bleeds, it presently stops the Blood and in a simple Green Wound cures it at the first intention. It is best to be made of the Green Herb, by beating?and made thick by the Pouder of the same.

XVIII. The Distilled Water. It has in a weak manner the Virtues of the Juice, Essence, and Decoction and may be used as a Vehicle for the two first, or the Pouder.

XIX. The Oily Tincture. It is an excellent thing to be applied to Wounds of the Nerves and Joints ; and taken inwardly, prevails against the Jaundice, and gives present relief in the Colick. Dose thirty or forty drops in a Glass of White Port Wine.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.