Chap. 143. Of Colewort Garden.
I. The Names. It is called in Greek, ***** Λ Attice, Kcefafa, vel Κο&μβκ*: It is also caP" led ΆμβνΓo_·, (not because it drives away drunken-ness, but also because it is like in colot to the Ante-thy ft,) which name is intended of the first sort or the following Coleworts : }xxLatin,Brassica, and
the Apothecaries, Caulis : In English, Cole, and Cole-wort.
II. The Kinds. There are two principal Kinds viz. 1. The Healed Colewort, which is our Common Cabbage, of which we have at large Treated in Chap. 103. aforegoing. 2. The not beaded, or open Colewrt, of which there are several Species, viz.
1. The Garden Kinds, of which in this Chapter.
2. The Cole-Flower, of which in Cap. 144. 3. The Wild Kind,cL which in Grp. 145. 4. Tfc Sea Cole-wort, of which in G*p. 146. Of the Garden Kind there are many Species, as 1. Brassica vulgaris sativa, Our common Garden Colewort. 2. Brassica sativa Crispa, Curled Garden Colewort; 3. Brassica Rubra, The common Red Colewort. 4. Brassica Pa-tula, The open Cabbage Colewort : Of all which in their order.
III. The Descriptions. The first which is our common Garden Colewort, has a woody strong Root, with many Fibres or Strings adjoining to it : From which Root rise up many broad, thick, fat Leaves, of a deep black green color, through the middle of which Leaves runs in each a great Rib, which is thick and high on the backside, with many smaller Ribs or Branches rising from that middle Rib, of Reddish, Whitish, and Ash-colors. The Stalk grows out of the midst from among these Leaves, which spreads it self forth into several Branches, bearing at the top, small yellow Flowers : which Flowers being past, long Cods succeed, full of round Seed, like those of the Turnep, but smaller.
Roots, Stalks broad, thick, fat Leaves, Flowers, Cod*-, and Seed, that it would seem to be wholly the same individual Species, did not the color make the difference, that being of a green color, this of a Red; some of a deep purple, others of a lighter Red, and some of a reddish Green.
IV. The second,. or Crisped Kind, has a Root, Stalk, Flowers, Cods, and seed not much differing from the former: but the greatest difference lyes in the magnitude, this being something lesser than the former; and in the Leaf, this being divided with many deep Cuts, even to the middle Rib on both Jides^ by which means it becomes rough every where in its edges, ad very much much Crisped ν Curled.
V. The third Kind, is β like unto the first in its
Vl. The fourth Kind, has a Root somewhat thick, strong, and woody, filled with almost an innumerable company of fibres, some greater, some smaller, some shorter, and some longer, like in number as it were to the hairs of ones head; from which Root springs up one thick Stalk, having at top thereof a great thick head of crumpled Leaves: the Leaves are large, and of a white green color, and set with thick large white Ribs: the outermost of which gather the rest of the Leaves closely together, which are lesser than those next the ground, these lye open most part of the Summer, without any seemingness to close : but towards the end of the Summer, being grown to have a great many Leaves, it then seems as if it would shut up or close together _·, but standing a while at a ft ay, it on the contrary rather dilates and spreads it self abroad, looking something like a thick, hard, whitened Colewort, and is indeed nothing else. • VII. There are besides these, several other Species of edible Colcworts some Curled, and wholly of a Green color, some of divers colors in one Plant, as White, Yellow, Red, Purple, or Crimson, so variably mixed as to cause admiration, the Leaves being curled on the edges like a Ruff, very beautiful to behold. 2. There is also another curl d Colewort, of lefi beauty and respect, being but a little curfd on the edges, whole Leaves are white, and edged with green: or green and edg'd with white. 3. There are two other forts of Coleworts, one of a Popinjay green color: the other of a fine deep green, like unto the Savoys. 4. There is the Cole Rape, Which is also a Colewort, which bears a white Head, or headed Stalk above the ground, as large as a reasonable Turnep, but longer, and from the top whereof spring our divers great Leaves, like unto other Coleworts, among which rise up clivers Stalks, which bear yellow flowers, and Seed rr>
Pols almolt as imall as Multard Seed, whose Root is very long, and very thick or buihy, with a vast number of fibres.
VIII. The Places. They all of them grow every Where through England, Scotland and Ireland, in Gardens, being chiefly nurs'd up to supply the Mar kets, and for the use of the Kitchin.
IX. The Times. They all Flower in July, and their Seed is ripe in the end of August.
X. The Qualities. They ate temperate in respect ro heat or cold, but are said to be drying in the first Degree, and of a binding Faculty : and yet the Broth of the riril boiling, some Authors lay, loosens the Body ; the second Decoction (fay they) is only Astringent. They abound with a certain Nitrous or Salt Quality, whereby they mightily cleanse the Bowels, whether in their Juice or Broth : but the substance of the Colewort is of a drying and binding Faculty, because in boiling it looies its Saline Particles, and leaves them in the Decoction or Broth.
XI. The Specification. They are peculiar against Asthma's, breathing ObstrucFed, and shortness of Breath ; for being of a cleansing quality, by taking away the superfiuity of matter in the Lungs, and other Bowels, they so open the Passages, as to leave the parts for respiration free and clear.
XII. The Preparations. You may have therefrom, i. A liquid Juice. 2. An Essence. 3. A Syrup made with Honey. 4. ALchocb. 5. A Decoction. 6. A Collyrium. 7. A Cataplasm. 8. AJhes of the Stalks. .9. The Seed. ic. A Sallet.
XIII. The liquid Juice. Pliny says, that if it is mixed with Wine, and dropt into the Ears, it is beneficial against Deafness. Dioscorides says, that if it is mixed with Juice of Flowers de luce and Nitre, that it will make the Body foluble. The Juice having some Nitre dissolved in it, and used
as an Errhine, up the Nostrils, it purges the Head and Brain, of Cold, Moist, and Pituitous Humors.
XIV. The Essence. Being mixed with Wine, and so drunk, it helps such as are bitten by Vipers or Adders, or any other Venomous Serpent. It is also good for those who have been Poisoned by eating Venomous Mushrooms. Dole three or four onnces •twice a day.
XV. The Syrup made of the Juice with Honey. It is good against Coughs, Colds, Hoarsness, shortness of Breath, and loss of Voice : and being often uied, it causes easie Expectoration j heals the Lungs, and soreness of the Stomach, and so is good for such as are entring into a Consumption. Dose two ounces two or three times a day, in Tent, Mai-laga, Ufe.
XVI. The Lohoch, or Elettuary. If it is made of the Pulp of the Stalks with Honey, it is good for such as are short winded, and are purfie, breath difficultly, and have a vehement Cough. You must take the middle fteihy Ribs, boil them in Milk till they are soft, then take out their Pulp, and so mix it with Honey to a Lohoch or Electuary.
XVII. The Decoction. It encreases Milk in Nurses and being drunk, strengthens the Nerves and oints. And Gerard says, that if those sores in the iyes called Carcinomata, be washed therewith, it heals them, though they could be healed by no other means. The first Decoction loosens the Belly, but the second binds it: The first is said to provoke the Terms, and cause Conception, but the second hinders it. If the Decoction is made in Cock Broth, by boiling the Coleworts with the Cock, it will be a singular help for such as are troubled with Wind, and Griping Pains in the Stomach and Belly. The same Broth, is also very good for those who are troubled with Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen ^ and for such as have Stones, Gravel, Sand, or other Tartarous Matter in the Reins, Ureters, or Bladder. Taken before meat, it is averv good thing to keep one from Surfeiting, as also from Drunkenness, though they drink much Wine, by restraining and keeping down the Vapors, which otherwile would ascend up, and intoxicate the Brain and this it will the more effectually do, if it is made pleasantly or gratefully sharp with Juice of Limons. Swoln and Gouty Hands, Knees, Legs, and Feet, (into which gross Humors are protruded or fallen ) being bathed with Decoction of Cole-worts Warm, eases the Pain, discusses the Humor, and takes away the Swelling. The Decoction ( as also the Juice and Essence ) cleanses, dries, and heals Scabbiness, old Ulcers, and filthy running Sores, being often washed therewith. And Galen says, it cleanses so strongly, that it w*U even Cure the Leprosie.
XVIII. The Collyrium. It is rn*4e_o__ tjbe Juice, Essence or Decoction, b_ 4ifl^vmg Honey in the same, three ounces of rfpner to every ?inr. This being often dropt into the tfts, it clears the fight by removing any Qo.uAJiie^ film, or Pearl: it is helpful against Inflammations and Blood-shot, and also cures fore and running Eyes.
XIX. The Cataplasm. Made of the Juice or Essence with Pouder of Fenugreek, and applied, it eases the Pains of the Gout, and discusses the Tumor : it jk so heals filthy running Sores, and old putrid Ulcers. If it is made of the Leaves beaten to a Pultice, it prevails against all forts of Inflammations, and hot Tumors. If it is made of the Herb or Juice, made into a Body with Barley Meal or Flower, and a little Common Salt, it is said to break Carbuncles, or at least Ibme kind of Tumors, which much resemble them. If it is made up into a Fel-
fary, and so pur up the Womb, ir provokes the Terms,
XX. The AJhcs of the Stalks. They are wonder fully drying and piercing, so that they almost become Cauftick being mixed with Hogs Lard, the mixture is very effectual to anoint the sides and Stomach of fuch, who have of a long time been pained in those parts, or in any other place, where the pain arises from the oppreflion of the Spleen, or excess of the Melancholly Humor, by helping to digest it, and discussing flatulencies.
XXI. The Seed. Being bruised and drunk, it kills Worms, as Galen says : it also takes away freckles of the Face, and other parts of the Skin, Sunburn-ings, Tanning, Scurf, Morphew, and other Deformities thereof Athenaus also lays, that it takes away Drunkenness.
XXII. The Sallet. The fourth lort eaten raw, being chopt small, and dress'd up with Vinegar, Oil, Salt, and Mustard, strengthen the Stomach, cause a good Appetite, preserve from Drunkenness, and cause a good Digestion. The first kind, or any of the rest, being boiled with Meat till they are soft, then chopt small, and dress'd up with melted Butter, Vinegar and Salt, become an admirable Sallet for such as have weak Stomachs, or are going into a Consumption, have dim Eyes, are affected with the Spleen, Flatulencies or Melancholly, or are troubled with Tremblings of the Limbs, or the Palsie. The Ancient Romans thought them to be effectual against all Diseases of the Body, whether Inward or Outward, for which reason Chryfippuswtote a whole Volume of their Virtues, applying them to all parts of the Body. And that the Senate of Rome having expelf d all the Physicians out of their Territories for the space of fix hundred Years, did for all that length of time, preserve and maintain their health, against the aiTaults of all Diseases, by the only use of these Plants.