Chap. 167. Of Cress Wild.
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I. The Names. It is called in Greek, tuy«/zo* Mvov xj Zyeiov: in Latin, Nasturtium agrejie, Nasturtium Sylvestre: in English, Wild Cress.
II. The Kinds. There are three which go under the Name of Wild Cress, viz. I. Nasturtium Sylvestre Ofyridis foliis, Narrow-leav'd White Cresses. 2. Nasturtium agrejie Carolinianum, The Carolinian Wild Cress. 3. Nasturtium Petrxum, The Stone or Rock Cress.
III. The Descriptions. The first of these has a woody Root, which perishes after Seed time, from whence spring forth many small, round and hard Stalks, with several small, round and narrow Leaves growing thereon without Order, branched from the middle upwards into many parts, at the tops of which come forth a great number of small white Flowers, (but some have been found with yellow Flowers, tho* not often) one standing above another, Spike fashion, after which appear Husks, containing small Seed.
IV. The second, or Carolinian Wild Cress, has a long and fender Root, with many Fibres proceeding from it, which also perishes every Lear; from which Root grows up a round, green and hairy Stalk, about a foot high or more, and if it grows in rich or fertil Ground, sometimes about a foot and half high _·, sometimes but one Stalk grows up, and sometimes more * which Stalk or Stalks spread into Branches from the very Ground, at every Joint whereof stand long winged Leaves, very much divided, like unto the
Common Garden Cress, but yet more finely cut pr divided, and sharp in Taste, like Cresses. The flowers are many, and of a pale whitish yellow color, standing in long Spikes at the tops-, which being paj'sd away, small, flqrt Pouches appear, divided into two parts, which stand not upright, but hang downwards, in which is contained small reddish Seed, like unto Cress Seed.
V. The third, or Rock Cress, has a small and thready perishing Root, from whence rise up several Leaves upon long Foot-stalks, which Leaves are jagged and cut about the edges, much like to Oak Leaves, or father the Leaves of Shepherds-purse : from a-midst these Leaves rise up several Stalks, with small jagged Leaves growing thereon, one only at a place, without any Foot-stalk, and not being above one, two or three in η umber, to the top of each Stalk : on which tops spiked Heads of Flowers very thick fet, which are small, and of a white color, like those of the Garden Cress. The Seed is contained in small Pouches or Seed-Vessels, which are fiat, like to Thlaspi, or Treacle-Mustard.
VI. The Places. The jirft grows Wild in the Fields, by High-ways, and Hedge-sides, and among Rubbiih, and in many other places. The second grows plentifully in many places, Wild in the Fields which have been formerly Manured, and afterwards lye as Fallow or Waste: I found a great quantity of it in Capt. AbboPs Plantation up Wando River, not above four or five Miles from Charles Town in Carolina. In grows also very plentifully in the Kingdom of Valentia in Spain, ( from whence it was brought to us in England) for which Reason it is called also Nasturtium Sylvestre Valentianum. ^ The third has been found growing in Shropshire, in the Fields about Birch, in the Parish of Elefmere, and in the Grounds formerly belonging to one Richard Hepbert, and that in great plenty : also on the farther side of Black-heath, by the Highway side, leading from Greenwich to Lufam.
VII. The Times. These flower later than some u 1 ςΓ ^ormeT Crejjes, viz. in June and July, and
yill. The Qualities, Specification, Preparations and \ irtues,jiz the same with Garden Crejjes in Crap 163. afotegoing> and to them you are referred.
Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.