Chap. 169. Of Cress Winter.

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I. The Names. It is thought to be that Plant X which the Greeks (as Dioscorides) call γ*ν. Mivuu, (tho' it is Ίπυ&βίνΜ in the Text, which I |uage is by a mistake in tranferibing, B*mt Bunium lfn§f;arth~nuts-> and Bunias, the Navew or Wi/dTurnep, to which latter, this our Winter Cress s something a kin:) in Latin it is called Nasturtium tiybernum, Pseudobunias Dodonai, Nasturtium Mroaricum, Barbarea, Santl__ Barbara Herba, Scopa ™&aAnguilar*, Sideritis Latifjima Fuchsii, finap'i juimi generis Tragi 5 and in English, Winter

II. The Kinds. They are threefold, 1. Barbart^ simplex, Barbarea five Eruca lutea latifolia, Naflur-tium Palustre Gesneri, ErucaR alufir is Lugdunensis, (it is called also by all the Names in the former Sell ion h ) Common Winter Cress. 2.. Bar bar ea flore pleno, five Eruca lutea Bauhini, Double-flowred Winter Cress. 3. Barbarea minor, Herba fan-8Ί Alberti Cafalpini, Small Winter Cress, or Winter Rocket,

III. The Descriptions. The fir (I has a Root something fibrous, which always perishes after the per-fetting of its Seed, from which spring up several Leaves indifferent large, and of a fad green color, lying upon the Ground, and torn or gap't into several parts, something like unto Rocket or Turnep Leaves, ( but nothing like to Cresses) which Leaves have smaller pieces next the bottom, and broad at the ends, which fo, abide all the Winter, (if it springs up in Autumn, when it is used to be eaten either green or fiewed:) from among these Leaves rise up divers small round Stalks, which spread themselves into many Branches, bearing in a spiked manner many small yellow Flowers, each having four Leaves apiece; which being past, small long Pods come forth, containing small reddish Seed within them.

IV. The second, or double-flowred, has ά Root like the former, which perishes not in Winter, but abides many Years: the Stalks are bigger than the formery and crested withal. The Leaves are shorter, and are about an inch in length, cut in on the edges in the same manner as the others are. The Flowers are yellow, like the former single, but something larger; and double withal, which makes the greatest part of the difference.

V. The third, or Small Winter Cress, has a Root like the first, and perishing as it _·, from which spring forth blackish green Leaves, somewhat jagged or torn in on the sides, resembling Moth-mullein : the Stalks and Leaves both are less than the first, nor does it grow so high. The Flowers are yellow aljo

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as the others, but fugle and lesser ; and so also are the Coits which follow the Flowers, and yield touch the Janie kind of Seed, but lesser in proportion to the Magnitude of the Cods.

VI. The Places. The first grows oftentimes of its own accord in Gardens, as also in Fields by Paths and Ways sides in several places of England as in the next Fields beyond that called Lambs-Conduit, ( from whence comes Lambs-Conduit Water a little below Snow-hill:) the other two are only nurs'd up in Gardens.

VII. TJ?c Tunes. They all flower in May, and the single ones feed in June, and then periln ; but the double kind abides green both Winter and Summer. The Italians and Spaniards are scarcely acquainted with any of these Winter-Cresses, or rather Winter-Rockets, they being more peculiar to these our colder Climates.

VIII. The Qualities, Specification, Preparations, Virtues and Uses are the same with those of Garden-Cress in Chap, 163. aforegoing, to which you are referred : But besides all that is there faid, we have these following Observations.

IX. Observation 1. The Green Herb. It is used as Rocket or Cress to be eaten as a Sallet in Winter, and that with great pleasure and satisfaction, when other Salleting is difficult to be gotten.

X. Observ. 2. The Liquid Juice. If it is drunk inwardly, it is found by good Experience to be a singular good Wound Herb, to cleanse and heal inward Wounds and being outwardly applied, to wash filthy running Sores, and putrid old Ulcers, cleansing them by its Sharpness, and removing the dead Flesh, and hindering proud Flesh from growing therein, and ib healing them by its drying Quality. It is also profitable to provoke Urine, help the Strangury, and expel Gravel and the Stone. Dole two or three ounces Morning and Night for some time, in some proper Vehicle.

XL Observ. The Essence. It has all the Virtues of the liquid Juice exalted besides which, it is a most powerful thing to be used against the Scurvy, Dropsie and Gout, in cold Constitutions : it may be taken Morning, Noon and Night, from 1. to 2. ounces, in some proper Vehicle, the Use of which is to be continued a Month, two or three, according as the occasion or force of the Disease requires. It is truly a good thing against the Bloody-flux, and all other Fluxes of the Bowels whatsoever.

XII. Observ. 4. The Seed. It provokes Urine, is good against Dropsies and Gouts-, warms and comforts a cold and moist Stomach, and causes a good Appetite and Digestion. And if it is made into a Lohoch with Honey, it is good against Asthma's, Coughs, Colds, Wheezing, shortness of Breath and difficulty of Breathing, by cutting the tough, thick, viscous Flegm or Matter, and cawing an eaiy Expectoration. Dose as much as a large Nutmeg three or four times a day.

XIII. Observ. 5. The Spirit. It comforts and warms a cold and weak Stomach, chears the Heatt, exhilerates the Spirits, abibrbs Acidities, eases Pains and Gripings of the Bowels, expels Wind, prevails against the Colick, dissipates inward Apostems, dissolves coagulated Blood, and prevents or helps its Stagnation and thereby refreshes wearied Nature, and Strengthens the whole Body. Dose 20 30 or 40 drops in a Glass of Wine or Ale. But this is to be observed That it is only to be given to such as are oi a cold Constitution, er Habit of Body _·, for such as are hot, it puts ail into a Flame, and there-lore such are to avoid it.

Botanologia, or The English Herbal, was written by William Salmon, M.D., in 1710.