565. Arnica.—Arnica Flowers. 564. Arnicae Radix.—Arnica Root.

Botanical name: 

The dried flower heads of Ar'nica montana Linné.

DESCRIPTION OF DRUG.—About 25 mm. (1 in.) in length and 15 to 20 mm. (3/5 to 4/5 in.) in diameter, surrounded by lanceolate, involucral scales; the receptacle is flat, and bears about 15 to 20 bright yellow, ligulate ray-florets, 3-toothed, striate, about 25 mm. (1 in.) long, and numerous shorter, tubular disk-florets; pappus long and hairy) giving the heads a characteristic appearance; odor peculiar and agreeable; taste persistently acrid and bitter. The powder is sternutatory. Adulterated with many flowers of the Compositae, such as calendula, anthemis, inula, senecio, etc.

Powder.—Characteristic elements: See Part iv, Chap. I, B.

CONSTITUENTS.—Four per cent. of arnicin, and 0.04 to 0.07 per cent. of butyraceous volatile oil. A bitter alkaloid arnicine with crystallizable salts was reported, but has not since been confirmed. Ash, not more than 9 per cent.

ACTION AND USES.—Same as the root. Dose: 15 to 30 gr. (1 to 2 Gm.). The tincture is used externally as a vulnerary.

Tinctura Arnicae (20 per cent.) Dose: 10 to 30 drops (0.6 to 2 Mils).

564. ARNICAE RADIX.—ARNICA ROOT. A horizontal, contorted rhizome about 50 to 75 mm. (2 to 3 in.) long, and 3 to 4 mm (1/8 to 1/6 in.) thick; externally dark brown, rough from scars, longitudinally wrinkled, and beset with numerous thin, fragile rootlets. Fracture short, showing a rather thick bark containing a circle of resin cells near the cambium line, a circle of short, yellowish wood-bundles, and a very large, whitish pith. Odor slightly aromatic; taste pungent and bitter. Adulterated with other roots of the Compositae, also with Geum urbanum roots and Fragaria vesca Off. in. U.S.P. 1890. Stimulant and tonic. Dose: 5 to 30 gr. (0.3 to 2 Gm.).

A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.