160. Caulophyllum.—Squaw Root. Blue Cohosh.

Fig. 87. Caulophyllum - Cross-section of rhizome. 160. CAULOPHYLLUM.—SQUAW ROOT. BLUE COHOSH. N.F. The rhizome and roots of Caulophyl'lum thalictroi'des Linné. Off . in U.S.P. 1890. Rhizome crooked, of horizontal growth, about 1 00 mm. (4 in.) long, and 6 to 8 mm. (1/4 to 1/3 in.) thick; on the upper side are broad cup-shaped scars and short bent branches having concave terminations; it is beset with numerous tough and wiry light-brown rootlets matted together. Externally of a dull brown color, internally whitish, with numerous narrow wood-wedges, sometimes in two circles, inclosing a large pith. The rootlets have a much thicker bark and a thick central woody cord. Nearly inodorous; taste slightly sweetish and somewhat acrid. (Highly magnified starch grains of caulophyllum, see Fig. 87.) Constituents: CAULOPHYLLINE. Resins, 12 per cent., tannin, starch, gum, etc. Caulophylline is colorless, odorless, and almost tasteless, is not precipitated by alkalies, and crystallizes with difficulty; many of its characteristics make it appear as a proximate principle belonging to a new class of bodies about which little is known.

Preparation of Caulophyllin.—Concentrate alcoholic tincture and add this to a large volume of water. Collect precipitate and dry in current of warm air.

Caulophylline.—Extract drug with 60 per cent. alcohol. Evaporate tincture to a semi-solid. Add ferric hydrate and sodium bicarbonate to this residue and extract the mixture with chloroform. The principle remains on the evaporation of the solvent. Emmenagogue, diuretic, and antispasmodic; it has some reputation in the treatment of rheumatism and as an expectorant in bronchitis. Dose: 5 to 30 gr. (0.3 to 2 Gm.).

A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 1917, was written by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M.