507, 508. Stramonium.—Thornapple. Jimson Weed.
BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS.—Datu'ra stramo'nium Linné. Rank, narcotic, poisonous annuals. Leaves ovate, sinuate-toothed. Corolla white, funnelform, the border 5-toothed. Fruit a 4-valved, 2-celled capsule, the outer side covered with prickles, longer toward the apex.
HABITAT.—Europe, Asia, and North America; almost universally distributed.
The dried leaves of Datu'ra Stramo'nium or of D. tatula Linné.
DESCRIPTION OF DRUG.—These leaves, in the dried and broken state resemble somewhat those of belladonna, but are lighter in color; odor distinct, heavy, and narcotic; taste nauseous. Admixture of more than 10 per cent. of stems or other foreign matter not permitted. The drug should yield not less than 0.25 per cent. of total alkaloids.
Powder.—Characteristic elements: See Part iv, Chap. I, B.
CONSTITUENTS.—Daturine 0.2 per cent., which, according to Laden-burg, is a mixture of atropine and hyoscyamine, with the latter usually predominating; it is said to be stronger than atropine. Ash, not to exceed 20 per cent.
ACTION AND USES.—Stramonium acts similarly to belladonna in every particular, but more strongly, and chiefly on the sympathetic system, without affecting the motor or sensory nerves. Its chief use is in asthma, the powdered leaves being sprinkled with a solution of potassium nitrate, dried, and smoked in a pipe, or ignited and the smoke inhaled. Dose: 1 to 5 gr. (0.065 to 0.3 Gm.).
- OFFICIAL PREPARATIONS.
- Tinctura Stramonii Dose: drops 8 (0.5 mil).
- Extractum Stramonii—Pilular Extract 0.01 Gm. (1/6 gr.).
- Extractum Stramonii—Powder, Extracted 0.01 Gm. (1/6 gr.).
- Unguentum Stramonii.
508.—STRAMONII SEMEN.—Off. in U.S.P. 1890. Small, somewhat reniform, flattened seeds, with a blackish testa covered with small indentations; the embryo, curved parallel with the convex edge of the seed, is imbedded in a whitish, oily albumen. Inodorous in the whole state, but with a peculiar disagreeable odor when crushed; taste oily, slightly acrid, bitter, and nauseous. Constituents: Daturine 0.3 per cent., combined with malic (daturic) acid, scopolamine, fixed oil, etc. Dose: 1 to 3 gr. (0.065 to 0.2 Gm.). A tincture, extract, and fluidextract were official in the U.S.P. I 890.