43. Hordei Fructus.—Barley. 43a. Hordeum. 43b. Maltum.—Malt.
43. HORDEI FRUCTUS.—BARLEY. The fruit of Hor'deum dis'tichum Linné, a common cultivated cereal indigenous to Western Asia. About 15 mm. (3/5 in.) long, tapering at the ends, on one side traversed by a longitudinal groove along which the grayish-yellow palea or husk is coalesced with the smooth, pale brown testa; underneath the testa is a layer of gluten surrounding the central starchy parenchyma. Nutritive.
43a. HORDEUM, or pearl barley, is the fruit deprived of its brown integuments.
43b. MALTUM.—MALT (U.S.P. IX). Prepared from the fruit of Hordeum distichum Linné by soaking, and then allowing fermentation to proceed until the young embryo is nearly the length of the fruit; the fruit is then dried in the sun and afterward kiln-dried in order to kill the germ. The object of this process is to develop the greatest possible amount of diastase, a peculiar ferment which has the property of converting starch into sugar. Malt occurs in yellowish or ambered-colored grains crisp when fractured with a whitish interior. Its odor is agreeable and characteristic. The taste is sweetish due to the conversion of some of the starch into maltose by the diastase present. Malt should float in cold water. Malt is demulcent and nutrient, given in the form of the extract.
ACTION AND USES.—Demulcent and nutritive given in conjunction with other substances chiefly.
PREPARATION. Extractum Malti (liquid, of honey-like consistence).