391. Petroselini Radix, N.F.—Parsley. 391a. Petroselinum, U.S.P. IX. 391b. Apiol.
391. PETROSELINI RADIX, N.F.—PARSLEY. The root of Petroseli'num sati'vum Hoffman, native to Southern Europe, but cultivated extensively as a com ion garden plant. A tapering root from 100 to 200 mm. (4 to 8 in.) long, and about 12 mm. (½ in.) thick externally yellowish or light brown, marked with close annular rings above and longitudinal wrinkles at the lower end; fracture short, showing a thick bark dotted with resin cells, and a porous, pale yellow wood, with very irregular, white medullary rays. When fresh, it has a strong, aromatic odor, but is only faintly so when dry; taste sweetish, slightly aromatic. It is the chief source of apiol (also found in celery), a yellowish liquid somewhat analogous to the fixed oils, given as an emmenagogue in doses of 10 to 15 drops (0. 6 to 1 mil). The root is given in infusion as a carminative, and as a laxative and diuretic in nephritic and dropsical affections. Dose: 30 to 60 gr. (2 to 4 Gm.).
391a. PETROSELINUM, U.S.P. IX, applies this term to the fruit which is ovate, about 2 mm. (1/12 in.) long, with a greenish or brownish-gray surface, the mericarps usually separated. It contains the same principal ingredients, and is used for about the same purposes as the root. Dose: 8 to 30 gr. (0.5 to 2 Gm.). See Apiol 391b.
Powder.—Microscopical elements of: See Part iv, Chap. I, B.
Official Preparation.—Oleoresina Petroselini.
391b. APIOL (L. apinum, parsley, + ol), an oleoresinous liquid, heavier than water, of a persistent odor, distinct from the plant, and an acrid, pungent taste; from certain umbelliferous fruits, chiefly parsley "seed" (fruit). A crystalline compound, C12H14O4, a purified apiol (parsley camphor) is obtainable. Dill oil yields a liquid apiol which has the same composition as the crystallizable apiol from the parsley. (See also 388.)